Ein Hemed is a national park and nature reserve in the hills seven kilometres west of modern Jerusalem. A fortified Hospitaller building from the Crusader period, relatively well preserved, is arguably the main attraction beside the streams and lush vegetation.
The Kingdom of Jerusalem built fortresses along the road to Jerusalem in order to control the traffic to Jerusalem, and protect pilgrims visiting the Holy City. Farms were built using the spring water for irrigation.
Impressive ruins of a 30x40 metre Crusader courtyard building, whose southern wall survives to a height of 12 metres, are located on the north site of the riverbed. The building has several gates and two arched halls. Archaeological investigations indicate that it was built in 1140-1160, during the reign of Fulk of Jerusalem, in the same period as the fortresses on Tzova and Abu Ghosh. South of the building are a nature reserve and a Muslim cemetery.References:
The Basilica of Santa Maria in Trastevere is one of the oldest churches of Rome. The basic floor plan and wall structure of the church date back to the 340s, and much of the structure to 1140-43. The first sanctuary was built in 221 and 227 by Pope Callixtus I and later completed by Pope Julius I.
The inscription on the episcopal throne states that this is the first church in Rome dedicated to Mary, mother of Jesus, although some claim that privilege belongs to the Basilica di Santa Maria Maggiore. A Christian house-church was founded here about 220 by Pope Saint Callixtus I (217-222) on the site of the Taberna meritoria, a refuge for retired soldiers. The area was made available for Christian use by Emperor Alexander Severus when he settled a dispute between the Christians and tavern-keepers.
The church underwent two restorations in the fifth and eighth centuries and in 1140-43 it was re-erected on its old foundations under Pope Innocent II.