On 23rd April 1289 the Landmeister (provincial Master) of the Teutonic Order in Prussia, Meinhard von Querfurt, attacked the lands of the Skalvians. Afterwards he ordered to construct a Teutonic fortress which was to replace an old Prussian fort called 'Ragaine'. The new stronghold was named 'Landehut', meaning 'the land's guarding fort' or 'the land's defence'.
At the turn of the 13th and 14th centuries, the Teutonic Knights were involved in exhausting battles with Lithuania over Skalovia. At that time the former name of the fort, 'Ragnit', was revived. Ragnit Castle became the most part of the defence system built by the Teutonic Knights in the borderland between Prussia and Lithuania, and also one of the major links in a chain of fortresses protecting the Monastic State of the Order.
Despite being a powerful stronghold, Ragnit Castle sometimes fell into the hands of enemy. In 1397-1409 the Teutonic Knights built a new brick and stone castle in Ragneta. The works were supervised by the Master of the Teutonic Order, Konrad Fellenstein of Marienburg.
A huge stone and brick fortress was raised, surrounded with a moat and an embankment, which formed an enclosed square. The size of the inner ward was about 1.000 square meters. The main entrance, decorated with a granite doorframe, was located in the west wing. The entrance could be closed securely with an iron grate. Some time later a watchtower, about 25 meters high, was raised near the castle.
In November 1678 Ragenta Castle was seized by the Swedish troops, who stayed in the castle for about a year until Grand Master Frederic Wilhelm arrived with reinforcements and forced the occupants to leave the castle. Once the Swedish troops had withdrawn, the castle underwent necessary repairs.
During the Napoleonic wars, French troops stationed in the castle. In December 1812 Russians entered the town, lead by General Alexander Kutuzov, a relative of an outstanding Russian army commander, Michail Illarionovich Kutuzov.
In the 1930s, the historic fortress of Ragnit lost its defensive character. The castle was reconstructed to function as a seat of a law court and a prison.Today we can admire the ruins of the castle, including its watchtower, which still stand in the centre of the town, on the Neman River. Unfortunately, the devastation and unsanitary appearance of what has been left of the fortress are a sad reminder of our indifferent attitude to the past. A few years ago, when some filmmakers were looking for a location to shoot war scenes, the ruined fortress was rediscovered. Some effort was even made to preserve the ruins. All in vain, God's Eye has turned away from the town's dwellers and does not watch over the castle or the town. So it is the residents of Ragnit who should assume the responsibility for their historic heritage.References:
Lübeck Cathedral is a large brick-built Lutheran cathedral in Lübeck, Germany and part of the Lübeck UNESCO World Heritage Site. In 1173 Henry the Lion founded the cathedral to serve the Diocese of Lübeck, after the transfer in 1160 of the bishop's seat from Oldenburg in Holstein under bishop Gerold. The then Romanesque cathedral was completed around 1230, but between 1266 and 1335 it was converted into a Gothic-style building with side-aisles raised to the same height as the main aisle.
On the night of Palm Sunday (28–29 March) 1942 a Royal Air Force bombing raid destroyed a fifth of the town centre. Several bombs fell in the area around the church, causing the eastern vault of the quire to collapse and destroying the altar which dated from 1696. A fire from the neighbouring cathedral museum spread to the truss of the cathedral, and around noon on Palm Sunday the towers collapsed. An Arp Schnitger organ was lost in the flames. Nevertheless, a relatively large portion of the internal fittings was saved, including the cross and almost all of the medieval polyptychs. In 1946 a further collapse, of the gable of the north transept, destroyed the vestibule almost completely.
Reconstruction of the cathedral took several decades, as greater priority was given to the rebuilding of the Marienkirche. Work was completed only in 1982.
The cathedral is unique in that at 105 m, it is shorter than the tallest church in the city. This is the consequence of a power struggle between the church and the guilds.
The 17 m crucifix is the work of the Lübeck artist Bernt Notke. It was commissioned by the bishop of Lübeck, Albert II. Krummendiek, and erected in 1477. The carvings which decorate the rood screen are also by Notke.
Since the war, the famous altar of Hans Memling has been in the medieval collection of the St. Annen Museum, but notable polyptychs remain in the cathedral.
In the funeral chapels of the southern aisle are Baroque-era memorials by the Flemish sculptor Thomas Quellinus.