Nowe is a small town beautifully situated on the high bank of the Vistula River. On the steep bank slope, at the turn of the 12th and 13th century stood a mighty fortress, which, along with castles in Stargard and Świecie used to monitor ship traffic on the Vistula. The importance of the castle in Nowe emphasized the fact that it was a residence of Castellan duke Świętopełek II.
According to the chronicles, during the conquest of Gdańsk Pomerania, Teutonic Knights destroyed the city of Gdańsk, Tczew and Nowe. At this time the castle of Nowe was officiated by the Castellan Duke, while the town itself was the private property of Piotr Święca. Then, the Teutonic Knights offered to repurchase the rights to Nowe and the whole district, For the price of 1,200 grzywien (medieval coins weighing less than 200 grams of silver) Piotr Święca sold the town, where he had ruled for 12 years.
After the year 1308, Nowe was destroyed and depopulated. Not until 1350 that the Grand Master of the Teutonic Order, Heindrich Düssemer von Arffenberg, gave the town a new location privilege. The construction of the castle in Nowe started probably about mid-14th century by the Teutonic Knights at the place of castellan fortress. It was one of the smallest Teutonic castles in Pomerania. As it consisted of a three storey residential building, perimeter wall combined to the town's fortified walls. Probably the castle's separate walls fenced off the city, more likely preceded by a moat. The lowest tier was allocated to utility rooms. The rooms on the first floor were occupied by the religious brother holding the custody of the castle,placed next to the dining hall, chapel and a guests room. The highest tier was allocated to the granaries and warehouses.
Nowe returned to Poland in 1466. The 16th century was a time of prosperity for the town, which profited from its location on a commercial trail along the Vistula river. Settled here were Dutch Mennonites, who fled to Poland from religious persecution. During the 17th century Swedish wars the town was badly destroyed and deserted.References:
Les Invalides is a complex of buildings containing museums and monuments, all relating to the military history of France, as well as a hospital and a retirement home for war veterans, the building"s original purpose. The buildings house the Musée de l"Armée, the military museum of the Army of France, the Musée des Plans-Reliefs, and the Musée d"Histoire Contemporaine, as well as the burial site for some of France"s war heroes, notably Napoleon Bonaparte.
Louis XIV initiated the project in 1670, as a home and hospital for aged and unwell soldiers: the name is a shortened form of hôpital des invalides. The architect of Les Invalides was Libéral Bruant. The enlarged project was completed in 1676, the river front measured 196 metres and the complex had fifteen courtyards. Jules Hardouin Mansart assisted the aged Bruant, and the chapel was finished in 1679 to Bruant"s designs after the elder architect"s death.
Shortly after the veterans" chapel was completed, Louis XIV commissioned Mansart to construct a separate private royal chapel referred to as the Église du Dôme from its most striking feature. Inspired by St. Peter"s Basilica in Rome, the original for all Baroque domes, it is one of the triumphs of French Baroque architecture. The domed chapel is centrally placed to dominate the court of honour. It was finished in 1708.
Because of its location and significance, the Invalides served as the scene for several key events in French history. On 14 July 1789 it was stormed by Parisian rioters who seized the cannons and muskets stored in its cellars to use against the Bastille later the same day. Napoleon was entombed under the dome of the Invalides with great ceremony in 1840. In December 1894 the degradation of Captain Alfred Dreyfus was held before the main building, while his subsequent rehabilitation ceremony took place in a courtyard of the complex in 1906.
The building retained its primary function of a retirement home and hospital for military veterans until the early twentieth century. In 1872 the musée d"artillerie (Artillery Museum) was located within the building to be joined by the Historical Museum of the Armies in 1896. The two institutions were merged to form the present musée de l"armée in 1905. At the same time the veterans in residence were dispersed to smaller centres outside Paris. The reason was that the adoption of a mainly conscript army, after 1872, meant a substantial reduction in the numbers of veterans having the twenty or more years of military service formerly required to enter the Hôpital des Invalides. The building accordingly became too large for its original purpose. The modern complex does however still include the facilities detailed below for about a hundred elderly or incapacitated former soldiers.