Nowe is a small town beautifully situated on the high bank of the Vistula River. On the steep bank slope, at the turn of the 12th and 13th century stood a mighty fortress, which, along with castles in Stargard and Świecie used to monitor ship traffic on the Vistula. The importance of the castle in Nowe emphasized the fact that it was a residence of Castellan duke Świętopełek II.
According to the chronicles, during the conquest of Gdańsk Pomerania, Teutonic Knights destroyed the city of Gdańsk, Tczew and Nowe. At this time the castle of Nowe was officiated by the Castellan Duke, while the town itself was the private property of Piotr Święca. Then, the Teutonic Knights offered to repurchase the rights to Nowe and the whole district, For the price of 1,200 grzywien (medieval coins weighing less than 200 grams of silver) Piotr Święca sold the town, where he had ruled for 12 years.
After the year 1308, Nowe was destroyed and depopulated. Not until 1350 that the Grand Master of the Teutonic Order, Heindrich Düssemer von Arffenberg, gave the town a new location privilege. The construction of the castle in Nowe started probably about mid-14th century by the Teutonic Knights at the place of castellan fortress. It was one of the smallest Teutonic castles in Pomerania. As it consisted of a three storey residential building, perimeter wall combined to the town's fortified walls. Probably the castle's separate walls fenced off the city, more likely preceded by a moat. The lowest tier was allocated to utility rooms. The rooms on the first floor were occupied by the religious brother holding the custody of the castle,placed next to the dining hall, chapel and a guests room. The highest tier was allocated to the granaries and warehouses.
Nowe returned to Poland in 1466. The 16th century was a time of prosperity for the town, which profited from its location on a commercial trail along the Vistula river. Settled here were Dutch Mennonites, who fled to Poland from religious persecution. During the 17th century Swedish wars the town was badly destroyed and deserted.References:
The Mosque–Cathedral of Córdoba, also known as the Great Mosque of Córdoba and the Mezquita is regarded as one of the most accomplished monuments of Moorish architecture.
According to a traditional account, a small Visigoth church, the Catholic Basilica of Saint Vincent of Lérins, originally stood on the site. In 784 Abd al-Rahman I ordered construction of the Great Mosque, which was considerably expanded by later Muslim rulers. The mosque underwent numerous subsequent changes: Abd al-Rahman II ordered a new minaret, while in 961 Al-Hakam II enlarged the building and enriched the Mihrab. The last of such reforms was carried out by Almanzor in 987. It was connected to the Caliph"s palace by a raised walkway, mosques within the palaces being the tradition for previous Islamic rulers – as well as Christian Kings who built their palaces adjacent to churches. The Mezquita reached its current dimensions in 987 with the completion of the outer naves and courtyard.
In 1236, Córdoba was conquered by King Ferdinand III of Castile, and the centre of the mosque was converted into a Catholic cathedral. Alfonso X oversaw the construction of the Villaviciosa Chapel and the Royal Chapel within the mosque. The kings who followed added further Christian features, such as King Henry II rebuilding the chapel in the 14th century. The minaret of the mosque was also converted to the bell tower of the cathedral. It was adorned with Santiago de Compostela"s captured cathedral bells. Following a windstorm in 1589, the former minaret was further reinforced by encasing it within a new structure.
The most significant alteration was the building of a Renaissance cathedral nave in the middle of the expansive structure. The insertion was constructed by permission of Charles V, king of Castile and Aragon. Artisans and architects continued to add to the existing structure until the late 18th century.
The building"s floor plan is seen to be parallel to some of the earliest mosques built from the very beginning of Islam. It had a rectangular prayer hall with aisles arranged perpendicular to the qibla, the direction towards which Muslims pray. The prayer hall was large and flat, with timber ceilings held up by arches of horseshoe-like appearance.
In planning the mosque, the architects incorporated a number of Roman columns with choice capitals. Some of the columns were already in the Gothic structure; others were sent from various regions of Iberia as presents from the governors of provinces. Ivory, jasper, porphyry, gold, silver, copper, and brass were used in the decorations. Marvellous mosaics and azulejos were designed. Later, the immense temple embodied all the styles of Morisco architecture into one composition.
The building is most notable for its arcaded hypostyle hall, with 856 columns of jasper, onyx, marble, granite and porphyry. These were made from pieces of the Roman temple that had occupied the site previously, as well as other Roman buildings, such as the Mérida amphitheatre. The double arches were an innovation, permitting higher ceilings than would otherwise be possible with relatively low columns. The double arches consist of a lower horseshoe arch and an upper semi-circular arch.