The Old Church of Ytterlännäs dates from the early 13th century, retaining the original walls and the Romanesque outer door with its iron ornament around the keyhole, and a lion's head from c. 800 from the area of Byzantine cultural influence around Constantinople.
In the 15th century a vestry and a 'weapon-house' (porch) were added, the choir was extended to make it as wide as the rest of the church, the roof was raised with vaults of brick, the windows enlarged, the Maria-bell was cast, and there is a candle-holder featuring a cock and a spiral central pillar. In the vaults and on the walls there are well-preserved frescos from the late 15th century, featuring a variety of biblical references and the legends of saints. It also includes an inscription interpreted by the art historian Henrik Cornell in 1918 as spelling maalede Eghil, 'painted by Eghil'. This was re-interpreted by Einar Bager in a 1969 publication as simply the incipit of the alphabet; the anonymous painter, who belonged to the Tierp school, is now known as Alfabetsmästaren, the Alphabet Master.
From the 14th century there is a marble baptismal font from Gotland, and a crucifix. An altarpiece in the Lübeck style has been displayed in several positions. The Ytterlännäs Madonna from Haaken Gulleson's Hälsingland workshop features both the coat of arms of the archdiocese, to which the church belonged at the time, and the personal arms (the claw of an eagle) of Archbishop Jakob Ulfsson, and is presumably a donation made on the occasion of his visit in 1507. From the 17th century there are pews, a wooden floor with broad planks and one panel of a pulpit; the first of the galleries' three sections is dated 1652.
In the 18th century a rare second gallery was added, as well as a new pulpit and a new altarpiece featuring a sculpture of the Last Supper with 1+13 round the table. Under protest the paintings of saints on the wall, the saints images in the ceilings and the other decoration was not touched. In 1773 the separate bell-tower burned down and was replaced by mounting the bells above the church itself, under a broken roof.
In the mid-19th century a larger church was needed to house the growing population, and it was decided to re-use the stones from the old church to build a new: but in an impassioned and rhetorical speech, magistrate Carl Martin Schönmeyer, the owner of the estateAngsta gård, managed to turn the decision in favour of leaving the old church untouched. It was abandoned and the Maria-bell was used at the smaller of two bells in the new church.References:
Roman Walls of Lugo are an exceptional architectural, archaeological and constructive legacy of Roman engineering, dating from the 3rd and 4th centuries AD. The Walls are built of internal and external stone facings of slate with some granite, with a core filling of a conglomerate of slate slabs and worked stone pieces from Roman buildings, interlocked with lime mortar.
Their total length of 2117 m in the shape of an oblong rectangle occupies an area of 1.68 ha. Their height varies between 8 and 10 m, with a width of 4.2 m, reaching 7 m in some specific points. The walls still contain 85 external towers, 10 gates (five of which are original and five that were opened in modern times), four staircases and two ramps providing access to the walkway along the top of the walls, one of which is internal and the other external. Each tower contained access stairs leading from the intervallum to the wall walk of town wall, of which a total of 21 have been discovered to date.
The defences of Lugo are the most complete and best preserved example of Roman military architecture in the Western Roman Empire.
Despite the renovation work carried out, the walls conserve their original layout and the construction features associated with their defensive purpose, with walls, battlements, towers, fortifications, both modern and original gates and stairways, and a moat.
Since they were built, the walls have defined the layout and growth of the city, which was declared a Historical-Artistic Ensemble in 1973, forming a part of it and becoming an emblematic structure that can be freely accessed to walk along. The local inhabitants and visitors alike have used them as an area for enjoyment and as a part of urban life for centuries.
The fortifications were added to UNESCO"s World Heritage List in late 2000 and are a popular tourist attraction.