The Old Church of Ytterlännäs dates from the early 13th century, retaining the original walls and the Romanesque outer door with its iron ornament around the keyhole, and a lion's head from c. 800 from the area of Byzantine cultural influence around Constantinople.
In the 15th century a vestry and a 'weapon-house' (porch) were added, the choir was extended to make it as wide as the rest of the church, the roof was raised with vaults of brick, the windows enlarged, the Maria-bell was cast, and there is a candle-holder featuring a cock and a spiral central pillar. In the vaults and on the walls there are well-preserved frescos from the late 15th century, featuring a variety of biblical references and the legends of saints. It also includes an inscription interpreted by the art historian Henrik Cornell in 1918 as spelling maalede Eghil, 'painted by Eghil'. This was re-interpreted by Einar Bager in a 1969 publication as simply the incipit of the alphabet; the anonymous painter, who belonged to the Tierp school, is now known as Alfabetsmästaren, the Alphabet Master.
From the 14th century there is a marble baptismal font from Gotland, and a crucifix. An altarpiece in the Lübeck style has been displayed in several positions. The Ytterlännäs Madonna from Haaken Gulleson's Hälsingland workshop features both the coat of arms of the archdiocese, to which the church belonged at the time, and the personal arms (the claw of an eagle) of Archbishop Jakob Ulfsson, and is presumably a donation made on the occasion of his visit in 1507. From the 17th century there are pews, a wooden floor with broad planks and one panel of a pulpit; the first of the galleries' three sections is dated 1652.
In the 18th century a rare second gallery was added, as well as a new pulpit and a new altarpiece featuring a sculpture of the Last Supper with 1+13 round the table. Under protest the paintings of saints on the wall, the saints images in the ceilings and the other decoration was not touched. In 1773 the separate bell-tower burned down and was replaced by mounting the bells above the church itself, under a broken roof.
In the mid-19th century a larger church was needed to house the growing population, and it was decided to re-use the stones from the old church to build a new: but in an impassioned and rhetorical speech, magistrate Carl Martin Schönmeyer, the owner of the estateAngsta gård, managed to turn the decision in favour of leaving the old church untouched. It was abandoned and the Maria-bell was used at the smaller of two bells in the new church.References:
Les Invalides is a complex of buildings containing museums and monuments, all relating to the military history of France, as well as a hospital and a retirement home for war veterans, the building"s original purpose. The buildings house the Musée de l"Armée, the military museum of the Army of France, the Musée des Plans-Reliefs, and the Musée d"Histoire Contemporaine, as well as the burial site for some of France"s war heroes, notably Napoleon Bonaparte.
Louis XIV initiated the project in 1670, as a home and hospital for aged and unwell soldiers: the name is a shortened form of hôpital des invalides. The architect of Les Invalides was Libéral Bruant. The enlarged project was completed in 1676, the river front measured 196 metres and the complex had fifteen courtyards. Jules Hardouin Mansart assisted the aged Bruant, and the chapel was finished in 1679 to Bruant"s designs after the elder architect"s death.
Shortly after the veterans" chapel was completed, Louis XIV commissioned Mansart to construct a separate private royal chapel referred to as the Église du Dôme from its most striking feature. Inspired by St. Peter"s Basilica in Rome, the original for all Baroque domes, it is one of the triumphs of French Baroque architecture. The domed chapel is centrally placed to dominate the court of honour. It was finished in 1708.
Because of its location and significance, the Invalides served as the scene for several key events in French history. On 14 July 1789 it was stormed by Parisian rioters who seized the cannons and muskets stored in its cellars to use against the Bastille later the same day. Napoleon was entombed under the dome of the Invalides with great ceremony in 1840. In December 1894 the degradation of Captain Alfred Dreyfus was held before the main building, while his subsequent rehabilitation ceremony took place in a courtyard of the complex in 1906.
The building retained its primary function of a retirement home and hospital for military veterans until the early twentieth century. In 1872 the musée d"artillerie (Artillery Museum) was located within the building to be joined by the Historical Museum of the Armies in 1896. The two institutions were merged to form the present musée de l"armée in 1905. At the same time the veterans in residence were dispersed to smaller centres outside Paris. The reason was that the adoption of a mainly conscript army, after 1872, meant a substantial reduction in the numbers of veterans having the twenty or more years of military service formerly required to enter the Hôpital des Invalides. The building accordingly became too large for its original purpose. The modern complex does however still include the facilities detailed below for about a hundred elderly or incapacitated former soldiers.