Trinity Church (Trefoldighetskirken) is the third church in Arendal, and all had the same name. Plans to build the present church was adopted by the Arendal town council in 1883.
The first church was built in timber in direction east-west. The eastern section was divided into two wings, one was the altar and the king's chair, the other an organ. The pulpit was placed where the wings meet. The church was consecrated on 6 December 1670 and was named 'Holy Trinity'. The church became too small and was demolished in 1832 to make room for the new church.
The town's second church was built in the Empire style in 1836 in the same location as the first church. This church was designed by Christian H. Grosch, was octagonal, and had 555 seats. The foundation stone was laid down in 1833 by Crown Prince Oscar (later King of Sweden and Norway). The church had no altar, but a large gypsum replica of Bertel Thorvaldsen's famous Christ sculpture.
In 1880, when Arendal was at the height as a town based on shipping, it was decided to build a new church. It was then announced an architectural competition to design the church. The competition was won by the 27-year-old architect Christian Fürst who was a student of the German architect Johannes Otzen. The foundation stone was laid down on 7 August 1885, and was performed as a large ceremony. This Trinity Church is built of brick. The church has 1.200 seats and is the largest in Aust-Agder County.
The roof is covered with copper plates. The influence of Otzen is also seen in the use of materials, a brick stone type with smooth surface. The altarpiece scene is 'Jesus blesses the eleven apostles before his ascension'. The altarpiece is painted by August Eiebakke.The church has three church bells in addition to a carillon.
Trinity Church is located in a sloping terrain in Arendal, and to make the church worthy surroundings, it was just after the church was built built a church bazaar around the church into the street. Church Bazaar have round arches, and is the only church bazaar in Norway which are designed and built simultaneously with the church.References:
Derbent is the southernmost city in Russia, occupying the narrow gateway between the Caspian Sea and the Caucasus Mountains connecting the Eurasian steppes to the north and the Iranian Plateau to the south. Derbent claims to be the oldest city in Russia with historical documentation dating to the 8th century BCE. Due to its strategic location, over the course of history, the city changed ownership many times, particularly among the Persian, Arab, Mongol, Timurid, Shirvan and Iranian kingdoms.
Derbent has archaeological structures over 5,000 years old. As a result of this geographic peculiarity, the city developed between two walls, stretching from the mountains to the sea. These fortifications were continuously employed for a millennium and a half, longer than any other extant fortress in the world.
A traditionally and historically Iranian city, the first intensive settlement in the Derbent area dates from the 8th century BC. The site was intermittently controlled by the Persian monarchs, starting from the 6th century BC. Until the 4th century AD, it was part of Caucasian Albania which was a satrap of the Achaemenid Persian Empire. In the 5th century Derbent functioned as a border fortress and the seat of Sassanid Persians. Because of its strategic position on the northern branch of the Silk Route, the fortress was contested by the Khazars in the course of the Khazar-Arab Wars. In 654, Derbent was captured by the Arabs.
The Sassanid fortress does not exist any more, as the famous Derbent fortress as it stands today was built from the 12th century onward. Derbent became a strong military outpost and harbour of the Sassanid empire. During the 5th and 6th centuries, Derbent also became an important center for spreading the Christian faith in the Caucasus.
The site continued to be of great strategic importance until the 19th century. Today the fortifications consist of two parallel defence walls and Naryn-Kala Citadel. The walls are 3.6km long, stretching from the sea up to the mountains. They were built from stone and had 73 defence towers. 9 out of the 14 original gates remain.
In Naryn-Kala Citadel most of the old buildings, including a palace and a church, are now in ruins. It also holds baths and one of the oldest mosques in the former USSR.
In 2003, UNESCO included the old part of Derbent with traditional buildings in the World Heritage List.