The first attempt to replace the wooden fort on the stone Kremlin in the historic city center of Nizhny Novgorod refers to 1374, but construction limited to only one tower, known as the Tower of Dmitrov (not survived to our time). Under the rule of Ivan III, Nizhny Novgorod plays the role of guard city, having a standing army, and serves as a place of military gathering troops on Moscow"s actions against Khanate of Kazan. In order to strengthen the defenses of the city, again begin the construction works of the walls.
Beginning of construction of the stone Kremlin of Nizhny Novgorod became the building in 1500 in the coastal town of Ivanovo Tower, but the main work unfolded in 1508 and in the short term to 1515 a grandiose building was completed. Cause of destruction of the old fortifications, oak walls, was a huge fire in 1513. Two-kilometer wall reinforced by 13 towers (one of them - Zachatskaya - on the shore of the Volga, not preserved). 'Stone City' had a permanent garrison with solid artillery weapons. With the fall of Kazan, Nizhny Novgorod Kremlin lost its military significance, and later it housed the city authorities, principalities, and provinces.
Today 12 of the 13 towers have preserved. In the Kremlin were many churches, but to date, leaving only Michael the Archangel Cathedral, built no later than the middle of the 16th century and rebuilt in 1628-1631, the oldest surviving building in the Kremlin. The cathedral is the tomb of Kuzma Minin. In 1828, in front of the Archangel Cathedral was constructed the obelisk in honor of Kuzma Minin and Dmitry Pozharsky (architect Melnikov and Martos).
In 1837-1841 was built the house of the military governor (now the building is the Museum of Art), in 1840-1843 at the direction of Nicholas I, was built the Arsenal. In 1931, in place of the Transfiguration Cathedral was built the House of Soviets, now the building is City Council.
In 1965, near the obelisk of Minin and Pozharsky was lit the Eternal Flame and created memorial complex in honor of Nizhny Novgorod citizens who died in World War II.References:
Château de Falaise is best known as a castle, where William the Conqueror, the son of Duke Robert of Normandy, was born in about 1028. William went on to conquer England and become king and possession of the castle descended through his heirs until the 13th century when it was captured by King Philip II of France. Possession of the castle changed hands several times during the Hundred Years' War. The castle was deserted during the 17th century. Since 1840 it has been protected as a monument historique.
The castle (12th–13th century), which overlooks the town from a high crag, was formerly the seat of the Dukes of Normandy. The construction was started on the site of an earlier castle in 1123 by Henry I of England, with the 'large keep' (grand donjon). Later was added the 'small keep' (petit donjon). The tower built in the first quarter of the 12th century contained a hall, chapel, and a room for the lord, but no small rooms for a complicated household arrangement; in this way, it was similar to towers at Corfe, Norwich, and Portchester, all in England. In 1202 Arthur I, Duke of Brittany was King John of England's nephew, was imprisoned in Falaise castle's keep. According to contemporaneous chronicler Ralph of Coggeshall, John ordered two of his servants to mutilate the duke. Hugh de Burgh was in charge of guarding Arthur and refused to let him be mutilated, but to demoralise Arthur's supporters was to announce his death. The circumstances of Arthur's death are unclear, though he probably died in 1203.
In about 1207, after having conquered Normandy, Philip II Augustus ordered the building of a new cylindrical keep. It was later named the Talbot Tower (Tour Talbot) after the English commander responsible for its repair during the Hundred Years' War. It is a tall round tower, similar design to the towers built at Gisors and the medieval Louvre.Possession of the castle changed hands several times during the Hundred Years' War. The castle was deserted during the 17th century. Since 1840, Château de Falaise has been recognised as a monument historique by the French Ministry of Culture.
A programme of restoration was carried out between 1870 and 1874. The castle suffered due to bombardment during the Second World War in the battle for the Falaise pocket in 1944, but the three keeps were unscathed.