The first attempt to replace the wooden fort on the stone Kremlin in the historic city center of Nizhny Novgorod refers to 1374, but construction limited to only one tower, known as the Tower of Dmitrov (not survived to our time). Under the rule of Ivan III, Nizhny Novgorod plays the role of guard city, having a standing army, and serves as a place of military gathering troops on Moscow"s actions against Khanate of Kazan. In order to strengthen the defenses of the city, again begin the construction works of the walls.
Beginning of construction of the stone Kremlin of Nizhny Novgorod became the building in 1500 in the coastal town of Ivanovo Tower, but the main work unfolded in 1508 and in the short term to 1515 a grandiose building was completed. Cause of destruction of the old fortifications, oak walls, was a huge fire in 1513. Two-kilometer wall reinforced by 13 towers (one of them - Zachatskaya - on the shore of the Volga, not preserved). 'Stone City' had a permanent garrison with solid artillery weapons. With the fall of Kazan, Nizhny Novgorod Kremlin lost its military significance, and later it housed the city authorities, principalities, and provinces.
Today 12 of the 13 towers have preserved. In the Kremlin were many churches, but to date, leaving only Michael the Archangel Cathedral, built no later than the middle of the 16th century and rebuilt in 1628-1631, the oldest surviving building in the Kremlin. The cathedral is the tomb of Kuzma Minin. In 1828, in front of the Archangel Cathedral was constructed the obelisk in honor of Kuzma Minin and Dmitry Pozharsky (architect Melnikov and Martos).
In 1837-1841 was built the house of the military governor (now the building is the Museum of Art), in 1840-1843 at the direction of Nicholas I, was built the Arsenal. In 1931, in place of the Transfiguration Cathedral was built the House of Soviets, now the building is City Council.
In 1965, near the obelisk of Minin and Pozharsky was lit the Eternal Flame and created memorial complex in honor of Nizhny Novgorod citizens who died in World War II.References:
German crusaders known as the Livonian Brothers of the Sword began construction of the Cēsis castle (Wenden) near the hill fort in 1209. When the castle was enlarged and fortified, it served as the residence for the Order's Master from 1237 till 1561, with periodic interruptions. Its ruins are some of the most majestic castle ruins in the Baltic states. Once the most important castle of the Livonian Order, it was the official residence for the masters of the order.
In 1577, during the Livonian War, the garrison destroyed the castle to prevent it from falling into the control of Ivan the Terrible, who was decisively defeated in the Battle of Wenden (1578).
In 1598 it was incorporated into the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth and Wenden Voivodship was created here. In 1620 Wenden was conquered by Sweden. It was rebuilt afterwards, but was destroyed again in 1703 during the Great Northern War by the Russian army and left in a ruined state. Already from the end of the 16th century, the premises of the Order's castle were adjusted to the requirements of the Cēsis Castle estate. When in 1777 the Cēsis Castle estate was obtained by Count Carl Sievers, he had his new residence house built on the site of the eastern block of the castle, joining its end wall with the fortification tower.
Since 1949, the Cēsis History Museum has been located in this New Castle of the Cēsis Castle estate. The front yard of the New Castle is enclosed by a granary and a stable-coach house, which now houses the Exhibition Hall of the Museum. Beside the granary there is the oldest brewery in Latvia, Cēsu alus darītava, which was built in 1878 during the later Count Sievers' time, but its origins date back to the period of the Livonian Order. Further on, the Cēsis Castle park is situated, which was laid out in 1812. The park has the romantic characteristic of that time, with its winding footpaths, exotic plants, and the waters of the pond reflecting the castle's ruins. Nowadays also one of the towers is open for tourists.