Dalheim Ricciacum is the site of a well-preserved Gallo-Roman theatre dating from the 2nd century AD. The site was first excavated by the Société Archéologique around 1850 under Antoine Namur (1812–1828). Thousands of objects were discovered, registered and described in three reports.
It appears that the settlement grew considerably until by the 3rd century it covered an area of about 25 hectares. In addition to the theatre there were private houses and large public buildings including a hostel, several temples and baths. There were also two large cemeteries. The findings indicate the population consisted of artisans and merchants. One of the more important finds was a magnificent temple measuring 28 by 19 metres. It dates from Emperor Hadrian's reign, about 130 AD.
The eagle monument commemorates the old Roman town Ricciacum and is also the symbol of Dalheim. The huge stone blocks forming the solid base of the monument were excavated in the 19th century, not far from their present location. The blocks no doubt date back to Roman times (middle of the 3rd century). They may have been removed from the Roman theatre in order to serve as the foundations of a burgus or defensive watchtower. The monument itself was built by the Archaeological Society of Luxembourg. On 28 May 1855, the groundbreaking ceremony was held in the presence of William III of the Netherlands who was also Grand Duke of Luxembourg. The memorial commemorates the presence of the Romans on Dalheim's Petzel plateau. Standing on a globe, the eagle seems to be looking in the direction of Trier while its body is facing Metz, symbolizing the old road from Metz to Trier.References:
The Cloth Hall in Kraków dates to the Renaissance and is one of the city's most recognizable icons. It is the central feature of the main market square in the Kraków Old Town (listed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site since 1978).
The hall was once a major centre of international trade. Traveling merchants met there to discuss business and to barter. During its golden age in the 15th century, the hall was the source of a variety of exotic imports from the east – spices, silk, leather and wax – while Kraków itself exported textiles, lead, and salt from the Wieliczka Salt Mine.
Kraków was Poland's capital city and was among the largest cities in Europe already from before the time of the Renaissance. However, its decline started with the move of the capital to Warsaw in the very end of the 16th century. The city's decline was hastened by wars and politics leading to the Partitions of Poland at the end of the 18th century. By the time of the architectural restoration proposed for the cloth hall in 1870 under Austrian rule, much of the historic city center was decrepit. A change in political and economic fortunes for the Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria ushered in a revival due to newly established Legislative Assembly or Sejm of the Land. The successful renovation of the Cloth Hall, based on design by Tomasz Pryliński and supervised by Mayor Mikołaj Zyblikiewicz, Sejm Marshal, was one of the most notable achievements of this period.
The hall has hosted many distinguished guests over the centuries and is still used to entertain monarchs and dignitaries, such as Charles, Prince of Wales and Emperor Akihito of Japan, who was welcomed here in 2002. In the past, balls were held here, most notably after Prince Józef Poniatowski had briefly liberated the city from the Austrians in 1809. Aside from its history and cultural value, the hall still is still used as a center of commerce.
On the upper floor of the hall is the Sukiennice Museum division of the National Museum, Kraków. It holds the largest permanent exhibit of the 19th-century Polish painting and sculpture, in four grand exhibition halls arranged by historical period and the theme extending into an entire artistic epoch. The museum was upgraded in 2010 with new technical equipment, storerooms, service spaces as well as improved thematic layout for the display.
The Gallery of 19th-Century Polish Art was a major cultural venue from the moment it opened on October 7, 1879. It features late Baroque, Rococo, and Classicist 18th-century portraits and battle scenes by Polish and foreign pre-Romantics.