The Fyodorovskaya Church is a penticupolar parish Russian Orthodox church built by ordinary parishioners on the right bank of the Kotorosl River in Yaroslavl between 1682 and 1687. It is dedicated to Theotokos Feodorovskaya, a miraculous icon from nearby Kostroma.
The building is notable as the first church in the region to be returned by the Soviets to the Russian Orthodox Church (in 1987). It served as the cathedral church of the ancient Yaroslavl-Rostov eparchy until the restored Dormition Cathedral was consecrated in 2010. During this period the relics of St. Theodore the Black and other local saints were kept there.
A parish chronicle from the 18th century survives. It indicates that it was the Mother of God who appeared to a paralyzed parishioner, Ivan, and commanded the building of a church in Her name. Ivan was instructed to sail down the Volga to Kostroma and ask Guriy Nikitin, a famous icon painter, to make a replica of the miraculous icon of the Theotokos. This new image eventually helped cure Ivan, among many others.
The parishioners decided to model the new church on that of the Ascension of Christ. Its exterior ornamentation is basic but proportions are graceful. The elongated drums and domes are considerably higher than the cuboid structure of the church that supports them. An enclosed gallery and a porch were added to the main cube in the first third of the 18th century.
The interior is of traditional design. It has four piers and is entirely covered in frescoes dating from 1716. The intricately carved icon screen was made in 1705. Some of the icons are noted for their complex calendar and cosmological codes.
The church compound is fenced and has a smaller church with a belfry on the north side. This single-dome Penskaya church is dedicated to St. Nicholas, a patron saint of merchants. There is also a baptistery of recent construction on the grounds.References:
Les Invalides is a complex of buildings containing museums and monuments, all relating to the military history of France, as well as a hospital and a retirement home for war veterans, the building"s original purpose. The buildings house the Musée de l"Armée, the military museum of the Army of France, the Musée des Plans-Reliefs, and the Musée d"Histoire Contemporaine, as well as the burial site for some of France"s war heroes, notably Napoleon Bonaparte.
Louis XIV initiated the project in 1670, as a home and hospital for aged and unwell soldiers: the name is a shortened form of hôpital des invalides. The architect of Les Invalides was Libéral Bruant. The enlarged project was completed in 1676, the river front measured 196 metres and the complex had fifteen courtyards. Jules Hardouin Mansart assisted the aged Bruant, and the chapel was finished in 1679 to Bruant"s designs after the elder architect"s death.
Shortly after the veterans" chapel was completed, Louis XIV commissioned Mansart to construct a separate private royal chapel referred to as the Église du Dôme from its most striking feature. Inspired by St. Peter"s Basilica in Rome, the original for all Baroque domes, it is one of the triumphs of French Baroque architecture. The domed chapel is centrally placed to dominate the court of honour. It was finished in 1708.
Because of its location and significance, the Invalides served as the scene for several key events in French history. On 14 July 1789 it was stormed by Parisian rioters who seized the cannons and muskets stored in its cellars to use against the Bastille later the same day. Napoleon was entombed under the dome of the Invalides with great ceremony in 1840. In December 1894 the degradation of Captain Alfred Dreyfus was held before the main building, while his subsequent rehabilitation ceremony took place in a courtyard of the complex in 1906.
The building retained its primary function of a retirement home and hospital for military veterans until the early twentieth century. In 1872 the musée d"artillerie (Artillery Museum) was located within the building to be joined by the Historical Museum of the Armies in 1896. The two institutions were merged to form the present musée de l"armée in 1905. At the same time the veterans in residence were dispersed to smaller centres outside Paris. The reason was that the adoption of a mainly conscript army, after 1872, meant a substantial reduction in the numbers of veterans having the twenty or more years of military service formerly required to enter the Hôpital des Invalides. The building accordingly became too large for its original purpose. The modern complex does however still include the facilities detailed below for about a hundred elderly or incapacitated former soldiers.