he Kremlin Presidium, also known as Building 14 was constructed in 1934. It formerly housed the Supreme Soviet, the highest legislative body of the Soviet Union. Currently, it houses various offices of the Russian presidential administration, the Kremlin Commandant’s office and offices of the FSO and is thus a highly secured and restricted area closed to the public. At present, only the southern corner façade, opposite the Tsar Bell can be viewed.
The four-story building has three wings opening towards the Senate, connected by a central building which faces the Taynitskaya Garden to the south. The southern facade has a row of Ionic order columns, with a gable roof in the center, reflecting the Neoclassical style of the adjacent Senate building. However, the wing halls are much simpler and less conspicuous. The building has three floors and is painted in the same yellow color as many other administrative buildings within the Moscow Kremlin.
The Presidium stands on the site of Chudov Monastery, founded in 1365 by the Metropolitan Alexius and the old Ascension Convent. These were among the historic buildings with the grounds of the Kremlin ordered to be destroyed by Joseph Stalin as part of the state atheism campaign, which resulted razing of religious structures from all over Russia. Work on a new administrative building for the Soviet government began almost immediately, and Ivan Rerberg, a prominent Moscow architect who had designed Kiyevsky Rail Terminal was assigned to the task.
The new building was completed in 1934, two years after Rerberg’s death. Initially, it had no name, and was used as the Red Commanders School, a military academy for Red Army leaders. The school was relocated in 1935, and from 1938, housed the offices of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet, whose head was the titular de jure head of state of the Soviet Union. From 1958-1961, part of the building was converted into the 1200 seat Kremlin Theatre.References:
Goryōkaku (五稜郭) (literally, 'five-point fort') is a star fort in the Japanese city of Hakodate on the island of Hokkaido. The fortress was completed in 1866. It was the main fortress of the short-lived Republic of Ezo.
Goryōkaku was designed in 1855 by Takeda Ayasaburō and Jules Brunet. Their plans was based on the work of the French architect Vauban. The fortress was completed in 1866, two years before the collapse of the Tokugawa Shogunate. It is shaped like a five-pointed star. This allowed for greater numbers of gun emplacements on its walls than a traditional Japanese fortress, and reduced the number of blind spots where a cannon could not fire.
The fort was built by the Tokugawa shogunate to protect the Tsugaru Strait against a possible invasion by the Meiji government.
Goryōkaku is famous as the site of the last battle of the Boshin War.