Dębno Castle is a late Gothic complex, built in 1470 - 1480 by Chancellor of the Crown and Kasztelan of Kraków, Jakub Dębiński. Before stone castle was built, a complex made of wood and earth had existed on the location. It probably belonged to komes Świętoslaw of the noble Gryfita family, Kasztelan of Wiślica. Some time in the mid-14th century, Dębno passed into the hands of the influential Odrowąż family, to which Jakub z Dębna, founder of the castle, belonged. In 1586 the castle was rebuilt in Renaissance style, and at that time it belonged to a Hungarian nobleman Ferenc Wesselini, secretary of King Stephen Báthory. In the late 18th century, another remodeling took place, ordered by the Tarło family, who were then-owners of the castle. Tarło coat of arms and the date 1772 can still be seenon baroque portal. Also, at that time, a part of the northern wing of the castle was added.
Throughout the years, Dębno castle changed hands several times. It belonged to a number of noble Polish families - Lanckoroński, Rogawski, Rudnicki, Spławski (who in 1831 hosted there refugees of the November Uprising), Jastrzębski. Even though owners carried out numerous remodeling projects, the castle did not change its original look. It today consists of four rectangular segments, which make an internal, rectangular courtyard with a well. The gate goes through a Baroque portal. Lavlishly furnished rooms on upper floors were occupied by owners, while domestic workers lived on ground floor. The castle used to be surrounded by a moat, now, there is a permanent wooden bridge leading to the gate.
In 1945, the castle was taken over by the government of Poland, and between 1970–1978, it was renovated. Since 1978, Dębno castle has been home to a branch of Tarnów Regional Museum.References:
Kirkjubøargarður ('Yard of Kirkjubøur', also known as King"s Farm) is one of the oldest still inhabited wooden houses of the world. The farm itself has always been the largest in the Faroe Islands. The old farmhouse dates back to the 11th century. It was the episcopal residence and seminary of the Diocese of the Faroe Islands, from about 1100. Sverre I of Norway (1151–1202), grew up here and went to the priest school. The legend says, that the wood for the block houses came as driftwood from Norway and was accurately bundled and numbered, just for being set up. Note, that there is no forest in the Faroes and wood is a very valuable material. Many such wood legends are thus to be found in Faroese history.
The oldest part is a so-called roykstova (reek parlour, or smoke room). Perhaps it was moved one day, because it does not fit to its foundation. Another ancient room is the loftstovan (loft room). It is supposed that Bishop Erlendur wrote the 'Sheep Letter' here in 1298. This is the earliest document of the Faroes we know today. It is the statute concerning sheep breeding on the Faroes. Today the room is the farm"s library. The stórastovan (large room) is from a much later date, being built in 1772.
Though the farmhouse is a museum, the 17th generation of the Patursson Family, which has occupied it since 1550, is still living here. Shortly after the Reformation in the Faroe Islands in 1538, all the real estate of the Catholic Church was seized by the King of Denmark. This was about half of the land in the Faroes, and since then called King"s Land (kongsjørð). The largest piece of King"s Land was the farm in Kirkjubøur due to the above-mentioned Episcopal residence. This land is today owned by the Faroese government, and the Paturssons are tenants from generation to generation. It is always the oldest son, who becomes King"s Farmer, and in contrast to the privately owned land, the King"s Land is never divided between the sons.
The farm holds sheep, cattle and some horses. It is possible to get a coffee here and buy fresh mutton and beef directly from the farmer. In the winter season there is also hare hunting for the locals. Groups can rent the roykstovan for festivities and will be served original Faroese cuisine.
Other famous buildings directly by the farmhouse are the Magnus Cathedral and the Saint Olav"s Church, which also date back to the mediaeval period. All three together represent the Faroe Island"s most interesting historical site.