Štramberk Castle ruins have an unknown origin (according to an old tale, the site of its original planned location was on the opposite hill Kotouè, but that was prevented by dwarves from the cave Devil's hole). Apparently, it was made to protect country boundaries. According to the most recent information, the castle was built either by members of the aristocratic family, Benešovic, or more precisely, after 1200, by the princes of the Pøemyslide family. In the 13th century, the castle was owned by the knights of the Templar order (see T. J. Pešina, Prodromus Moraviographiae, 1663). After the abolition of the order in 1312, the castle came under the administration of the Czech king Jan Lucemburský and, between 1333 and 1346, it was owned by the Moravian margrave Karel, later King of Bohemia (Charles IV). From 1350 (since 1359 called castrum Strallenberg), it was 25 later owned by the Moravian margrave Jan Jindøich, the founder of the town; then in 1375 it was taken over by his son, the margrave Jošt Lucemburský. After 1380, the most important owners of the castle were members of the Moravian-Silesian branch of the family Benešovic, the lords of Kravaøe (until 1433). After 1533, the castle started to deteriorate. Its oldest illustration (from 1722) shows a two-palace structure with farm buildings and two prismatic ramparts. In 1783, the outer part of the castle collapsed and the masonry was used for building purposes. The original height of the N-E fortification in the inner part of the castle remained unchanged. Between 1901 and 1903, its cylindrical tower called „bergrit“ (height 40 m, 10 m in diameter) was covered with a roof and changed into a lookout designed by the famous Prague architect Kamil Hilbert. The outer ramparts were partly repaired and completed with two gates. A plaque designed by the sculptor František Juráò, was fitted into the fortification in memory of Adolf Hrstka M.D. (1864-1931), physician and former mayor of Štramberk and its indefatigable promoter. The gothic tower of the castle together with adjoining parts of the fortification (NKP = National cultural monument) generally known as Trúba (local expression for round timber) dominates the town. In 1994, it became its property.
The Mosque–Cathedral of Córdoba, also known as the Great Mosque of Córdoba and the Mezquita is regarded as one of the most accomplished monuments of Moorish architecture.
According to a traditional account, a small Visigoth church, the Catholic Basilica of Saint Vincent of Lérins, originally stood on the site. In 784 Abd al-Rahman I ordered construction of the Great Mosque, which was considerably expanded by later Muslim rulers. The mosque underwent numerous subsequent changes: Abd al-Rahman II ordered a new minaret, while in 961 Al-Hakam II enlarged the building and enriched the Mihrab. The last of such reforms was carried out by Almanzor in 987. It was connected to the Caliph"s palace by a raised walkway, mosques within the palaces being the tradition for previous Islamic rulers – as well as Christian Kings who built their palaces adjacent to churches. The Mezquita reached its current dimensions in 987 with the completion of the outer naves and courtyard.
In 1236, Córdoba was conquered by King Ferdinand III of Castile, and the centre of the mosque was converted into a Catholic cathedral. Alfonso X oversaw the construction of the Villaviciosa Chapel and the Royal Chapel within the mosque. The kings who followed added further Christian features, such as King Henry II rebuilding the chapel in the 14th century. The minaret of the mosque was also converted to the bell tower of the cathedral. It was adorned with Santiago de Compostela"s captured cathedral bells. Following a windstorm in 1589, the former minaret was further reinforced by encasing it within a new structure.
The most significant alteration was the building of a Renaissance cathedral nave in the middle of the expansive structure. The insertion was constructed by permission of Charles V, king of Castile and Aragon. Artisans and architects continued to add to the existing structure until the late 18th century.
The building"s floor plan is seen to be parallel to some of the earliest mosques built from the very beginning of Islam. It had a rectangular prayer hall with aisles arranged perpendicular to the qibla, the direction towards which Muslims pray. The prayer hall was large and flat, with timber ceilings held up by arches of horseshoe-like appearance.
In planning the mosque, the architects incorporated a number of Roman columns with choice capitals. Some of the columns were already in the Gothic structure; others were sent from various regions of Iberia as presents from the governors of provinces. Ivory, jasper, porphyry, gold, silver, copper, and brass were used in the decorations. Marvellous mosaics and azulejos were designed. Later, the immense temple embodied all the styles of Morisco architecture into one composition.
The building is most notable for its arcaded hypostyle hall, with 856 columns of jasper, onyx, marble, granite and porphyry. These were made from pieces of the Roman temple that had occupied the site previously, as well as other Roman buildings, such as the Mérida amphitheatre. The double arches were an innovation, permitting higher ceilings than would otherwise be possible with relatively low columns. The double arches consist of a lower horseshoe arch and an upper semi-circular arch.