Laudegg Castle stands on a beautiful rock spur in the village of Ladis. The tower house was built in the Early middle ages and is first documented in 1239. However, a local Ministerialeship of Laudeck (an earlier form of Laudegg) is documented even earlier (1232) in the court diary of Duke Otto von Andechs in Innsbruck.
In 1406 Oberinntal became involved in the Appenzell peasant uprising under Ital Reding the Elder. Ladis was razed to the ground. In the following years, only the most necessary repairs were carried out, firstly under Maximilian I, who was interested in the region, the castle was expanded somewhat, but the promised funds were not sent. Though the castle was the administrative centre of Oberes Gericht valley (Laudeck Court) until the 17th century, it is documented in 1551 that the Keeper of Laudegg resided in Schloss Siegmundsried (built 1471) and the castle was no longer used as a camp or weapons store. In the 17th century it was renovated, but the building remained empty and fell into ruin for good after the administrative centre moved to Ried im Oberinntal.
Partial restorations began in 1964. Today the castle is on private property, but is open for visiting once a week in the months of July and August.References:
Derbent is the southernmost city in Russia, occupying the narrow gateway between the Caspian Sea and the Caucasus Mountains connecting the Eurasian steppes to the north and the Iranian Plateau to the south. Derbent claims to be the oldest city in Russia with historical documentation dating to the 8th century BCE. Due to its strategic location, over the course of history, the city changed ownership many times, particularly among the Persian, Arab, Mongol, Timurid, Shirvan and Iranian kingdoms.
Derbent has archaeological structures over 5,000 years old. As a result of this geographic peculiarity, the city developed between two walls, stretching from the mountains to the sea. These fortifications were continuously employed for a millennium and a half, longer than any other extant fortress in the world.
A traditionally and historically Iranian city, the first intensive settlement in the Derbent area dates from the 8th century BC. The site was intermittently controlled by the Persian monarchs, starting from the 6th century BC. Until the 4th century AD, it was part of Caucasian Albania which was a satrap of the Achaemenid Persian Empire. In the 5th century Derbent functioned as a border fortress and the seat of Sassanid Persians. Because of its strategic position on the northern branch of the Silk Route, the fortress was contested by the Khazars in the course of the Khazar-Arab Wars. In 654, Derbent was captured by the Arabs.
The Sassanid fortress does not exist any more, as the famous Derbent fortress as it stands today was built from the 12th century onward. Derbent became a strong military outpost and harbour of the Sassanid empire. During the 5th and 6th centuries, Derbent also became an important center for spreading the Christian faith in the Caucasus.
The site continued to be of great strategic importance until the 19th century. Today the fortifications consist of two parallel defence walls and Naryn-Kala Citadel. The walls are 3.6km long, stretching from the sea up to the mountains. They were built from stone and had 73 defence towers. 9 out of the 14 original gates remain.
In Naryn-Kala Citadel most of the old buildings, including a palace and a church, are now in ruins. It also holds baths and one of the oldest mosques in the former USSR.
In 2003, UNESCO included the old part of Derbent with traditional buildings in the World Heritage List.