The oldest part of the Tschanüff castle is the main tower, which was built as a bergfried (a fighting tower without permanent inhabitants) in the 12th century for the Lords of Ramosch. A ring wall was added in the 13th century. On 12 March 1256 Count Meinhard of Tyrol granted the knight Nannes of Ramosch the right to build a castle at Ramosch. Since there was already a fortification, this permission was probably to expand the small tower into a much larger castle. The new castle allowed the Ramosch family to control trade and taxes throughout the Lower Engadine.
On 19 August 1317 Nannes and his brother Johannes split the fief into two shares. The successors of Johannes, Conrad and Schweiker, quarreled with each other over their inheritance. The conflict grew until in 1365 Duke Leopold of Austria was forced to intervene. The agreement between the brothers stated that they both accepted the Dukes of Austria as their overlord, the castle was to remain open to the Dukes and if they quarreled again the castle and surrounding lands would become property of Austria. Despite the severe conditions, Conrad and Schweiker quickly began fighting again and in 1367 Schweiker murdered Conrad and fled Tschanüff. As a sign of appreciation for his service in an Austrian war in Italy, the Duke appointed Ulrich of Matsch as owner of Tschanüff. The Matsch family took possession of the castle on 17 February 1369.
The Bishop of Chur also had a claim on the castle and fearing Austria's growing influence in the region, began reasserting his claim. In 1394 Bishop Hartmann forced the Lords of Matsch to give up the castle. However, in the following year, Matsch attacked and plundered the castle but retreated when the Bishop led an army toward Ramosch. In 1421 a peace treaty gave the castle to the Bishop and the Lords of Matsch were paid 2500 marks for their losses. The Bishops then appointed vogts to rule over the valley for the following centuries. In 1468 the castle was attacked by the League of God's House during a conflict with the Bishop. It may have been besieged during the Hennenkreig in 1475. During the Swabian War of 1499, the Bishop's own troops burned the castle to prevent it from falling into the Emperor's hands. In 1565 rebels against the Bishop attacked, plundered and burned the outer ward. The Lower Engadine residents were found liable for the damage and ordered to pay to rebuild the castle.
Until the 16th century the castle was known as Ramosch or Remüs after the Lords of Ramosch. In the 16th century it began to be known as Tschanüff which was Romansh for Casa nova or New House. This was to distinguish it from the nearby Serviezel Castle.
During the Bündner Wirren in 1622, the castle was captured and burned by troops from Glarus. It was quickly repaired and survived the rest of the tumult without being destroyed. Over the next century and a half the castle was once again used as the residence of the Bishop's appointed representative. In 1780 it was abandoned after part of the castle was destroyed in a landslide.
The complex consists of the main castle with its tower, residential tract and secondary buildings surrounded by a ring wall and a southern outer ward which is surrounded by another ring wall in varying thickness. The two parts were connected by the gateway, through which a vaulted passage led into the courtyard of the main castle. Numerous masonry joints and differences in the wall structure indicate that the building must have taken place in several stages. The oldest part is part of the ring wall on the southeast which may date to before 1200. The main tower to the north may be from before 1200 or the early 13th century. In the early 13th century, the ring wall and parts of the southern residential tract were added. The bergfried still has five floors with a high entrance on the fourth floor on the south side. Since the masonry of the tower is not connected to the surrounding walls, these must be more recent.
The building south of the tower could be reached via the high entrance. There are holes for wooden beams at a height of four floors, and towards the south the remains of an unusually thick wall. To the west is the southern tract from the 15th century, a four-storey, cross-divided building. The barrel vaults of the lower storeys are partly collapsed. On the third floor was a hall with a wooden ceiling, above it was a fighting platform with crenelations. The individual rooms were accessible from the courtyard side.
To the north of this wing was a recent building, of which only a few remains of the wall have been preserved. The south wing was completed by an older shield wall with a thickness of 3 meters, which was probably reinforced in the age of the firearms to twice the thickness. Together, the two walls now form a massive tower-shaped block with no interior divisions.
West of the main tower was a two-storey building dating from around 1500, Erwin Poeschel believed it to have been a kitchen or smithy, on the upper floor living quarters. The remains of a sgraffito decoration have been preserved in exterior plastering. Window openings in the western wall of the enclosure point to an original continuation to the west; However, these parts of the building collapsed during landslides.References:
The Moszna Castle is one of the best known monuments in the western part of Upper Silesia. The history of this building begins in the 17th century, although much older cellars were found in the gardens during excavations carried out at the beginning of the 20th century. Some of the investigators, including H. Barthel, claimed that those cellars could have been remnants of a presumed Templar castle, but their theory has never been proved. After World War II, further excavations discovered a medieval palisade.
The central part of the castle is an old baroque palace which was partially destroyed by fire on the night of April 2, 1896 and was reconstructed in the same year in its original form by Franz Hubert von Tiele-Winckler. The reconstruction works involved an extension of the residence. The eastern Neogothic-styled wing of the building was built by 1900, along with an adjacent orangery. In 1912-1914, the western wing was built in the Neo-Renaissance style. The architectural form of the castle contains a wide variety of styles, thus it can be generally defined as eclectic.
The height of the building, as well as its numerous turrets and spires, give the impression of verticalism. The whole castle has exactly ninety-nine turrets. Inside, it contains 365 rooms. The castle was twice visited by the German Emperor Wilhelm II. His participation in hunting during his stay at the castle was documented in a hand-written chronicle in 1911 as well as in the following year. The castle in Moszna was the residence of a Silesian family Tiele-Winckler who were industrial magnates, from 1866 until the spring of 1945 when they were forced to move to Germany and the castle was occupied by the Red Army. The period of the Soviet control caused significant damage to the castle's internal fittings in comparison to the minor damage caused by WWII.
After World War II the castle did not have a permanent owner and was the home of various institutions until 1972 when it became a convalescent home. Later it became a Public Health Care Centre for Therapies of Neuroses. Nowadays it can be visited by tourists since the health institution has moved to another building in the neighbourhood. The castle also has a chapel which is used as a concert hall. Since 1998 the castle housed a gallery in which works of various artists are presented at regular exhibitions.
Apart from the castle itself, the entire complex includes a park which has no precise boundaries and includes nearby fields, meadows and a forest. Only the main axis of the park can be characterised as geometrical. Starting from the gate, it leads along the oak and then horse-chestnut avenues, towards the castle. Further on, the park passes into an avenue of lime trees with symmetrical canals running along both sides of the path, lined with a few varieties of rhododendrons. The axis of the park terminates at the base of a former monument of Hubert von Tiele-Winckler. On the eastern side of the avenue there is a pond with an islet referred to by the owners as Easter Island. The islet is planted with needle-leaved shrubs and can be reached by a Chinese-styled bridge. The garden, as part of the whole park complex was restored slightly earlier than the castle itself. Preserved documents of 1868 state that the improvement in the garden's aesthetic quality was undertaken by Hubert von Tiele-Winckler.