According to several historical documents, the fortifications in Colombaia island were built first time around the 260 BC, During the first Punic war. The Roman army tried several times to conquer this island, succeeding only in 247 BC, although they left it shortly after and left the territory totally in disuse, with the Castle of the Dovecote which quickly became a nest of doves that would have given way to the pagan worship of the goddess Venus Ericina, who sees his sacred animal in the dove. The arrival of the Arabi in Sicily allowed the Castello della Colombaia to finally find a new function, as it was used as a Lighthouse, being able to illuminate the seas and reactivating one of the most important military buildings until recently.
The arrival of the Aragonese in Sicily it was very important for the Castello della Colombaia, since, seeing its geographical position and the incredible advantages that it could have guaranteed, they decided to completely rebuild this military building, making it decidedly larger and more equipped than the first historical building. The works carried out by the Aragonese are still visible, as it is the same building that has come down to the present day. The Colombaia Castle was also one of the main fortifications during the reign of Charles V, as it allowed to spot and fight any incursions by pirates who intended to attack the Trapani coast. The expansion works also continued in the following centuries, with renovations that continued until the seventeenth century.
The Colombaia Castle is tall well 32 meters articulated on 4 floors, each of which was used for particular functions. The entrance was only possible from the second floor, which is why the Colombaia Castle is thought to have been equipped with a drawbridge. The structure is very large and consists of a shape octagonal, inside which there are small streets that connect the various buildings, which include the guard post, two docks, chapels and courtyards.References:
The Basilica of Santa Maria in Trastevere is one of the oldest churches of Rome. The basic floor plan and wall structure of the church date back to the 340s, and much of the structure to 1140-43. The first sanctuary was built in 221 and 227 by Pope Callixtus I and later completed by Pope Julius I.
The inscription on the episcopal throne states that this is the first church in Rome dedicated to Mary, mother of Jesus, although some claim that privilege belongs to the Basilica di Santa Maria Maggiore. A Christian house-church was founded here about 220 by Pope Saint Callixtus I (217-222) on the site of the Taberna meritoria, a refuge for retired soldiers. The area was made available for Christian use by Emperor Alexander Severus when he settled a dispute between the Christians and tavern-keepers.
The church underwent two restorations in the fifth and eighth centuries and in 1140-43 it was re-erected on its old foundations under Pope Innocent II.