According to several historical documents, the fortifications in Colombaia island were built first time around the 260 BC, During the first Punic war. The Roman army tried several times to conquer this island, succeeding only in 247 BC, although they left it shortly after and left the territory totally in disuse, with the Castle of the Dovecote which quickly became a nest of doves that would have given way to the pagan worship of the goddess Venus Ericina, who sees his sacred animal in the dove. The arrival of the Arabi in Sicily allowed the Castello della Colombaia to finally find a new function, as it was used as a Lighthouse, being able to illuminate the seas and reactivating one of the most important military buildings until recently.
The arrival of the Aragonese in Sicily it was very important for the Castello della Colombaia, since, seeing its geographical position and the incredible advantages that it could have guaranteed, they decided to completely rebuild this military building, making it decidedly larger and more equipped than the first historical building. The works carried out by the Aragonese are still visible, as it is the same building that has come down to the present day. The Colombaia Castle was also one of the main fortifications during the reign of Charles V, as it allowed to spot and fight any incursions by pirates who intended to attack the Trapani coast. The expansion works also continued in the following centuries, with renovations that continued until the seventeenth century.
The Colombaia Castle is tall well 32 meters articulated on 4 floors, each of which was used for particular functions. The entrance was only possible from the second floor, which is why the Colombaia Castle is thought to have been equipped with a drawbridge. The structure is very large and consists of a shape octagonal, inside which there are small streets that connect the various buildings, which include the guard post, two docks, chapels and courtyards.References:
Royal Palace of Naples was one of the four residences near Naples used by the Bourbon Kings during their rule of the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies (1734-1860): the others were the palaces of Caserta, Capodimonte overlooking Naples, and the third Portici, on the slopes of Vesuvius.
Construction on the present building was begun in the 17th century by the architect Domenico Fontana. Intended to house the King Philip III of Spain on a visit never fulfilled to this part of his kingdom, instead it initially housed the Viceroy Fernando Ruiz de Castro, count of Lemos. By 1616, the facade had been completed, and by 1620, the interior was frescoed by Battistello Caracciolo, Giovanni Balducci, and Belisario Corenzio. The decoration of the Royal Chapel of Assumption was not completed until 1644 by Antonio Picchiatti.
In 1734, with the arrival of Charles III of Spain to Naples, the palace became the royal residence of the Bourbons. On the occasion of his marriage to Maria Amalia of Saxony in 1738, Francesco De Mura and Domenico Antonio Vaccaro helped remodel the interior. Further modernization took place under Ferdinand I of the Two Sicilies. In 1768, on the occasion of his marriage to Maria Carolina of Austria, under the direction of Ferdinando Fuga, the great hall was rebuilt and the court theater added. During the second half of the 18th century, a 'new wing' was added, which in 1927 became the Vittorio Emanuele III National Library. By the 18th century, the royal residence was moved to Reggia of Caserta, as that inland town was more defensible from naval assault, as well as more distant from the often-rebellious populace of Naples.
During the Napoleonic occupation the palace was enriched by Joachim Murat and his wife, Caroline Bonaparte, with Neoclassic decorations and furnishings. However, a fire in 1837 damaged many rooms, and required restoration from 1838 to 1858 under the direction of Gaetano Genovese. Further additions of a Party Wing and a Belvedere were made in this period. At the corner of the palace with San Carlo Theatre, a new facade was created that obscured the viceroyal palace of Pedro de Toledo.
In 1922, it was decided to transfer here the contents of the National Library. The transfer of library collections was made by 1925.
The library suffered from bombing during World War II and the subsequent military occupation of the building caused serious damage. Today, the palace and adjacent grounds house the famous Teatro San Carlo, the smaller Teatrino di Corte (recently restored), the Biblioteca Nazionale Vittorio Emanuele III, a museum, and offices, including those of the regional tourist board.