One of the oldest towns in Portugal (founded in 1125), Ponte de Lima was historically significant as a Roman settlement on the road from Braga to Santiago de Compostela and Lugo, and the first place in Portugal getting a municipal charter.
The main symbol of Ponte de Lima, that together with the river names the town, is its bridge. In reality, it’s a composite formed by two bridges: a medieval part, which is bigger, starting on the left bank of the river and stretching to the church of Santo António da Torre Velha and beyond, for the length of two more arches. After that, starts the roman part of the bridge. It is only five arches long, starting from the big arch already lying on the old, dry riverbed.
Going down the stairs, one will also see the foundation of the Old Tower, maybe the first of the old medieval defensive system. The Roman bridge, presumably, dates back to the 1st century since that is the age that witnessed the opening of one of the Roman military ways of the Conventus Bracaraugustanus, connecting Braga to Astorga, more exactly the Via XIX, opened by Emperor Augustus.
Regarding the medieval part of the bridge, although one can go back in time, at least until the reigns of Pedro I and Fernando (that directly connect to the construction of the walls and towers that fortified the town, finished by 1370) or even King Dinis (according to the documents mentioning a bridge that could also have been made of wood) we definitely know about the existence of the medieval bridge during the reign of Manuel I, more exactly in 1504, as this monarch ordered the new paving of the bridge and its decoration with battlements that were no longer necessary as a defensive and military option.References:
The Petersberg Citadel is one of the largest extant early-modern citadels in Europe and covers the whole north-western part of the Erfurt city centre. It was built after 1665 on Petersberg hill and was in military use until 1963. It dates from a time when Erfurt was ruled by the Electors of Mainz and is a unique example of the European style of fortress construction. Beneath the citadel is an underground maze of passageways that can be visited on guided tours organised by Erfurt Tourist Office.
The citadel was originally built on the site of a medieval Benedictine Monastery and the earliest parts of the complex date from the 12th century. Erfurt has also been ruled by Sweden, Prussia, Napoleon, the German Empire, the Nazis, and post-World War II Soviet occupying forces, and it was part of the German Democratic Republic (East Germany). All of these regimes used Petersberg Citadel and had an influence on its development. The baroque fortress was in military use until 1963. Since German reunification in 1990, the citadel has undergone significant restoration and it is now open to the public as a historic site.