The beginnings of the Nossa Senhora da Oliveira Church date back to the monastery dedicated to the Saviour of the World, the Blessed Virgin Mary and the Holy Apostles, which was founded at this location by the Countess Mumadona Dias in the year 949 AD. Little remains of the original construction although a Romanesque chancel dating from the second half of the twelfth century and originating from the main church portal is preserved in the Alberto Sampaio Museum.
The arches of the cloister and the portal of the Chapter Hall, a work of excellent constructive technique, are testimony to Portugal's finest Romanesque-Mudéjar ensemble.
The invocation of Our Lady of Oliveira arose after 1342, with the greening of an olive tree in the border square, although the area was already an important pilgrimage hub to venerate an image of Santa Maria - the same one that was worshipped by D. João I on the eve of the Battle of Aljubarrota. Having won the battle, and in fulfilment of the King’s promise, the building was remodelled. Work continued until at least 1413, becoming a landmark of Gothic architecture in northern Portugal. The large window in the upper half of the main facade is integrally dedicated to the genealogy of the Virgin. In the altarpiece of the main chapel is an ancient image of Our Lady of Oliveira.
The building also includes Manueline elements, especially the bell tower, which was rebuilt by the Prior D. Diogo Pinheiro in 1513, and in which is the Burial Chapel of his parents. At the end of the 17th century, King Peter II ordered the main chapel to be enlarged, his coat of arms can be seen in the vault; from the same period is the 17th-century chancel with neoclassical backrests, another of the monument’s highlights, along with the altarpiece of the High Altar (dating from the second half of the 18th century), the silver altar of the Chapel of the Blessed Sacrament, and the large baroque canvases, attributed to Pedro Alexandrino, that adorn the walls. The building underwent modifications in the 19th and 20th centuries.In 1801, against the will of the population, the local council dug up an olive tree that had for years occupied the space in front of the church.References:
The Walled City of Jajce is a medieval fortified nucleus of Jajce in Bosnia and Herzegovina, with citadel high above town on top of pyramidal-shaped steep hill, enclosed with approximately 1,300 metres long defensive walls,. It is one of the best preserved fortified capitals of the Bosnian Kingdom, the last stronghold before the kingdom dissolved under the pressure of military advancement at the onset of Ottoman Empire takeover.
The entire complex of the Walled city of Jajce, with the citadel, city ramparts, watchtower Medvjed-kula, and two main city gate-towers lies on the southern slope of a large rocky pyramid at the confluence of the rivers Pliva and Vrbas, enclosed by these rivers from the south-southwest, with the bed of the Pliva, and east-southeast by the river Vrbas gorge.
The fortress was built by Hrvoje Vukčić Hrvatinić, the founder of Jajce. However, the city became the seat of the Bosnian kings, hence the royal coat of arms decoration on the citadel entrance. A part of the wall was built by the Hungarian King, while the Ottomans erected the powder magazine. The walls are high and the castle was built on a hill that is egg shaped, the rivers Pliva and Vrbas also protect the castle. There is no rampart on the south and west.
Jajce was first built in the 14th century and served as the capital of the independent Kingdom of Bosnia during its time. The town has gates as fortifications, as well as a castle with walls which lead to the various gates around the town. About 10–20 kilometres from Jajce lies the Komotin Castle and town area which is older but smaller than Jajce. It is believed the town of Jajce was previously Komotin but was moved after the Black Death.
The first reference to the name of Jajce in written sources is from the year 1396, but the fortress had already existed by then. Jajce was the residence of the last Bosnian king Stjepan Tomasevic; the Ottomans besieged the town and executed him, but held it only for six months, before the Hungarian King Matthias Corvinus seized it at the siege of Jajce and established the Banovina of Jajce.
Skenderbeg Mihajlović besieged Jajce in 1501, but without success because he was defeated by Ivaniš Korvin assisted by Zrinski, Frankopan, Karlović and Cubor.
During this period, Queen Catherine restored the Saint Mary"s Church in Jajce, today the oldest church in town. Eventually, in 1527, Jajce became the last Bosnian town to fall to Ottoman rule. The town then lost its strategic importance, as the border moved further north and west.
Jajce passed with the rest of Bosnia and Herzegovina under the administration of Austria-Hungary in 1878. The Franciscan monastery of Saint Luke was completed in 1885.
The Walled city of Jajce is located at the confluence of the Pliva and Vrbas rivers. It was founded and started developing in the Middle Ages and acquired its final form during the Ottoman period. There are several churches and mosques built in different times during different rules, making Jajce a rather diverse town in this aspect. It is declared National Monument of Bosnia and Herzegovina, and, as the old Jajce city core, including the waterfall, and other individual sites outside the walled city perimeter, such as the Jajce Mithraeum, it is designated as The natural and architectural ensemble of Jajce and proposed as such for inscription into the UNESCO"s World Heritage Site list. The bid for inscription is currently placed on the UNESCO Tentative list.