Djursholm castle includes building components from the late Middle Ages. It was the main building of the Djursholm estate, which was owned by the House of Banér from 1508-1813. Nils Eskilsson (Banér), who was lord of Djursholm 1508 to 1520, built a new palace at the place where Djursholm Castle remains.
Djursholm Castle was the residence of both Privy Councillour Gustaf Banér and his son, Field Marshal Johan Banér. Svante Gustavsson Banér gave the castle its present appearance in the 17th century. By the mid 17th century the castle was its present size. The main hall was fitted at this time, with plaster ceilings, stairs castle was of limestone and oak, and walls hung with art wallpaper full of gilt leather and other materials.
In 1891, Djursholms secondary school (Djursholms samskola) was started in the building. Until 1910, Djursholms secondary school operated on the premises. The first inspector of Djursholms samskolas was author Viktor Rydberg. Among the earliest teachers were Erik Axel Karlfeldt and Alice Tegner. Writer Elsa Beskow was an art teacher and her husband, theologian Natanael Beskow served as the headmaster of the school from 1897 to 1909.
In the 1890s, the castle was restored in Baroque style. Facade design was simplified by a new restoration from 1959 to 1961. A new entrance with modern suitability to the castle was built on the north side in 2003. Today it serves as the community center (kommunhus) in Danderyd Municipality.References:
The Cloth Hall in Kraków dates to the Renaissance and is one of the city's most recognizable icons. It is the central feature of the main market square in the Kraków Old Town (listed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site since 1978).
The hall was once a major centre of international trade. Traveling merchants met there to discuss business and to barter. During its golden age in the 15th century, the hall was the source of a variety of exotic imports from the east – spices, silk, leather and wax – while Kraków itself exported textiles, lead, and salt from the Wieliczka Salt Mine.
Kraków was Poland's capital city and was among the largest cities in Europe already from before the time of the Renaissance. However, its decline started with the move of the capital to Warsaw in the very end of the 16th century. The city's decline was hastened by wars and politics leading to the Partitions of Poland at the end of the 18th century. By the time of the architectural restoration proposed for the cloth hall in 1870 under Austrian rule, much of the historic city center was decrepit. A change in political and economic fortunes for the Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria ushered in a revival due to newly established Legislative Assembly or Sejm of the Land. The successful renovation of the Cloth Hall, based on design by Tomasz Pryliński and supervised by Mayor Mikołaj Zyblikiewicz, Sejm Marshal, was one of the most notable achievements of this period.
The hall has hosted many distinguished guests over the centuries and is still used to entertain monarchs and dignitaries, such as Charles, Prince of Wales and Emperor Akihito of Japan, who was welcomed here in 2002. In the past, balls were held here, most notably after Prince Józef Poniatowski had briefly liberated the city from the Austrians in 1809. Aside from its history and cultural value, the hall still is still used as a center of commerce.
On the upper floor of the hall is the Sukiennice Museum division of the National Museum, Kraków. It holds the largest permanent exhibit of the 19th-century Polish painting and sculpture, in four grand exhibition halls arranged by historical period and the theme extending into an entire artistic epoch. The museum was upgraded in 2010 with new technical equipment, storerooms, service spaces as well as improved thematic layout for the display.
The Gallery of 19th-Century Polish Art was a major cultural venue from the moment it opened on October 7, 1879. It features late Baroque, Rococo, and Classicist 18th-century portraits and battle scenes by Polish and foreign pre-Romantics.