Kristiansand Cathedral is the seat of the Bishop of Agder and Telemark in the Church of Norway. It is a Neo-Gothic church completed in 1885 and designed by the architect Henrik Thrap-Meyer. It is the third cathedral built in the town of Kristiansand and one of the largest cathedrals in Norway. The cathedral is 70m long and 39m wide, and the only tower is 70m high. Originally the cathedral had 2,029 seats and room for 1,216 standees, but seating has now been reduced to 1,300.To re-use the walls of the previous cathedral, which burned down in 1880, the altar was positioned at the west end, rather than in the traditional position in the east.
The cathedral is in the same location as three previous buildings. The first, called Trinity Church, was built in 1645 and was a small wooden church. When Kristiansand was appointed the seat of the diocese in 1682, construction began on the town's first cathedral, called Our Savior's Church. That first cathedral, built in stone, was consecrated in 1696, but burned down in 1734. The second cathedral, consecrated in 1738, was destroyed by a fire that affected the whole city, on 18 December 1880. When the 1940 Nazi German attack on Kristiansand took place early in the morning of 9 April 1940, the 70-metre cathedral tower was hit by a grenade, which fortunately only damaged the upper part.References:
First record of Kastelholma (or Kastelholm) castle is from the year 1388 in the contract of Queen Margaret I of Denmark, where a large portion of the inheritance of Bo Jonsson Grip was given to the queen. The heyday of the castle was in the 15th and 16th centuries when it was administrated by Danish and Swedish kings and stewards of the realms. Kastelhoma was expanded and enhanced several times.
In the end of 16th century castle was owned by the previous queen Catherine Jagellon (Stenbock), an enemy of the King of Sweden Eric XIV. King Eric conquered Kastelholma in 1599 and all defending officers were taken to Turku and executed. The castle was damaged under the siege and it took 30 years to renovate it.
In 1634 Åland was joined with the County of Åbo and Björneborg and Kastelholma lost its administrative status.