Kristiansand Cathedral is the seat of the Bishop of Agder and Telemark in the Church of Norway. It is a Neo-Gothic church completed in 1885 and designed by the architect Henrik Thrap-Meyer. It is the third cathedral built in the town of Kristiansand and one of the largest cathedrals in Norway. The cathedral is 70m long and 39m wide, and the only tower is 70m high. Originally the cathedral had 2,029 seats and room for 1,216 standees, but seating has now been reduced to 1,300.To re-use the walls of the previous cathedral, which burned down in 1880, the altar was positioned at the west end, rather than in the traditional position in the east.
The cathedral is in the same location as three previous buildings. The first, called Trinity Church, was built in 1645 and was a small wooden church. When Kristiansand was appointed the seat of the diocese in 1682, construction began on the town's first cathedral, called Our Savior's Church. That first cathedral, built in stone, was consecrated in 1696, but burned down in 1734. The second cathedral, consecrated in 1738, was destroyed by a fire that affected the whole city, on 18 December 1880. When the 1940 Nazi German attack on Kristiansand took place early in the morning of 9 April 1940, the 70-metre cathedral tower was hit by a grenade, which fortunately only damaged the upper part.References:
Kroměříž stands on the site of an earlier ford across the River Morava. The gardens and castle of Kroměříž are an exceptionally complete and well-preserved example of a European Baroque princely residence and its gardens and described as a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
The first residence on the site was founded by bishop Stanislas Thurzo in 1497. The building was in a Late Gothic style, with a modicum of Renaissance detail. During the Thirty Years' War, the castle was sacked by the Swedish army (1643).
It was not until 1664 that a bishop from the powerful Liechtenstein family charged architect Filiberto Lucchese with renovating the palace in a Baroque style. The chief monument of Lucchese's work in Kroměříž is the Pleasure Garden in front of the castle. Upon Lucchese's death in 1666, Giovanni Pietro Tencalla completed his work on the formal garden and had the palace rebuilt in a style reminiscent of the Turinese school to which he belonged.
After the castle was gutted by a major fire in March 1752, Bishop Hamilton commissioned two leading imperial artists, Franz Anton Maulbertsch and Josef Stern, arrived at the residence in order to decorate the halls of the palace with their works. In addition to their paintings, the palace still houses an art collection, generally considered the second finest in the country, which includes Titian's last mythological painting, The Flaying of Marsyas. The largest part of the collection was acquired by Bishop Karel in Cologne in 1673. The palace also contains an outstanding musical archive and a library of 33,000 volumes.
UNESCO lists the palace and garden among the World Heritage Sites. As the nomination dossier explains, 'the castle is a good but not outstanding example of a type of aristocratic or princely residence that has survived widely in Europe. The Pleasure Garden, by contrast, is a very rare and largely intact example of a Baroque garden'. Apart from the formal parterres there is also a less formal nineteenth-century English garden, which sustained damage during floods in 1997.
Interiors of the palace were extensively used by Miloš Forman as a stand-in for Vienna's Hofburg Imperial Palace during filming of Amadeus (1984), based on the life of Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, who actually never visited Kroměříž. The main audience chamber was also used in the film Immortal Beloved (1994), in the piano concerto scene.