Möhkö Ironworks was built in the middle of wilderness in the eastern part of Ilomantsi, by Möhkönkoski rapids of Koitajoki river. Ilomantsi born Carl G. Nygren was granted to build the ironworks in 1838. After him the factory was built by Adolf von Rauch from St. Petersburg between 1847 and 1849. Industrialist Nils Ludvig Arppe modernised the ironworks.
The conditions for the foundation of ironworks were lake ore lifted from the bottom of approximately a hundred lakes, cheap charcoal, water routes for transport and hydro power of the Möhkönkoski rapids. Möhkö was the one of the largest ironworks in Finland and it employed 2000 people. Thanks to the ironworks, Möhkö grew into a village of 600 people. The factory maintained a shop, a school, a library and a reading room.
The ironworks was closed down in 1908 because of distant location and the falling of the rocky ore prices. W. Gutzeit & Co. bought the factory and the forests. After the ironworks had been shut down, lumbering and log floating work provided a living for the people of Möhkö and Ilomantsi.
The Second World War destroyed Möhkö badly. It took away approximately a third of the territory of Ilomantsi. The automatisation of lumbering and migration to towns quitened Möhkö in the 1960’s and 1970’s.
Today Möhkö ironworks area functions as the factory museum. The ruins of blast furnace, massive waterwheel and unique, restored channels tell the stories of Möhkö ironworks. Pytinki Museum Shop serves customers. Several events are held in the area in summer season.
Reference: Möhkö Ironworks Museum
Roman Walls of Lugo are an exceptional architectural, archaeological and constructive legacy of Roman engineering, dating from the 3rd and 4th centuries AD. The Walls are built of internal and external stone facings of slate with some granite, with a core filling of a conglomerate of slate slabs and worked stone pieces from Roman buildings, interlocked with lime mortar.
Their total length of 2117 m in the shape of an oblong rectangle occupies an area of 1.68 ha. Their height varies between 8 and 10 m, with a width of 4.2 m, reaching 7 m in some specific points. The walls still contain 85 external towers, 10 gates (five of which are original and five that were opened in modern times), four staircases and two ramps providing access to the walkway along the top of the walls, one of which is internal and the other external. Each tower contained access stairs leading from the intervallum to the wall walk of town wall, of which a total of 21 have been discovered to date.
The defences of Lugo are the most complete and best preserved example of Roman military architecture in the Western Roman Empire.
Despite the renovation work carried out, the walls conserve their original layout and the construction features associated with their defensive purpose, with walls, battlements, towers, fortifications, both modern and original gates and stairways, and a moat.
Since they were built, the walls have defined the layout and growth of the city, which was declared a Historical-Artistic Ensemble in 1973, forming a part of it and becoming an emblematic structure that can be freely accessed to walk along. The local inhabitants and visitors alike have used them as an area for enjoyment and as a part of urban life for centuries.
The fortifications were added to UNESCO"s World Heritage List in late 2000 and are a popular tourist attraction.