Construction of the Helmond castle began somewhere around 1325. Helmond was the replacement of an older castle, known as ‘t Oude Huys, which stood hundreds of yards west of the castle. In 1981, excavations revealed the original structure’s dungeon and a few artifacts.In the 12th century, Helmond was in possession of the Hornes and the castle’s original owners were the Berlaer family, who were then succeeded by the Cortenbach family. In the late 1600s, the castle would fall into the hands of the Arberg family and later Frederik Carel Wesselman in 1781.
A terrible fire damaged the west wing of the castle in 1549, but the structure was not demolished. In the late 1500s, attempts to besiege the castle were unsuccessful as the castle’s defenses were able to withstand the attacks. However, in the early 1600s, the castle was sieged by Prince Mauritis and State troops after the attackers launched 6 cannons at the castle. The damaged was repaired, but shortly after, the castle was once again besieged by Walen’s troops.
In 1921, the castle was sold to the municipality of Helmond by the last Lady of the family under the stipulation that the castle would be used for municipal purposes. The Lady’s wishes were respected and the castle served as a town hall from 1923 until the 1970s.Very little remains of the original interior of the castle as the structure had continually been updated throughout history. A few stucco ceilings and several fireplaces are the only original features.
Today, the castle still hosts weddings and houses a small museum that educates visitors on the history of the castle. Exhibitions include contemporary art collections as well as historical art and artifacts that educate the public about Helmond’s history.References:
Roman Walls of Lugo are an exceptional architectural, archaeological and constructive legacy of Roman engineering, dating from the 3rd and 4th centuries AD. The Walls are built of internal and external stone facings of slate with some granite, with a core filling of a conglomerate of slate slabs and worked stone pieces from Roman buildings, interlocked with lime mortar.
Their total length of 2117 m in the shape of an oblong rectangle occupies an area of 1.68 ha. Their height varies between 8 and 10 m, with a width of 4.2 m, reaching 7 m in some specific points. The walls still contain 85 external towers, 10 gates (five of which are original and five that were opened in modern times), four staircases and two ramps providing access to the walkway along the top of the walls, one of which is internal and the other external. Each tower contained access stairs leading from the intervallum to the wall walk of town wall, of which a total of 21 have been discovered to date.
The defences of Lugo are the most complete and best preserved example of Roman military architecture in the Western Roman Empire.
Despite the renovation work carried out, the walls conserve their original layout and the construction features associated with their defensive purpose, with walls, battlements, towers, fortifications, both modern and original gates and stairways, and a moat.
Since they were built, the walls have defined the layout and growth of the city, which was declared a Historical-Artistic Ensemble in 1973, forming a part of it and becoming an emblematic structure that can be freely accessed to walk along. The local inhabitants and visitors alike have used them as an area for enjoyment and as a part of urban life for centuries.
The fortifications were added to UNESCO"s World Heritage List in late 2000 and are a popular tourist attraction.