Čabraď Castle is first mentioned in 1276. Then it also went by the name Litava Castle, due to its position on top of the Litava Valley and its river (with a dominating position). It along with other (sentry) castles were built to protect the roads that were going through the area to the central Slovakian mines that were booming at the time. The castle was the residence of the Ders of Hunt-Poznan who are noted as being in the area from 1256.
In the 14th Century the castle is recorded as becoming the residence of Mathias Csák, around 1342 the castle began to be expanded into a more suitable fortification than it was. Some time later Cabrad was conquered and taken over by Jan Jiskra of Brandys, who was marching with his Hussite forces. Matthias Corvinus came and claimed the castle in 1462.
In the early part of the 16th Century Cardinal Tamás Bakócz took over the castle and invested in its refurbishment and further expansions, he was one of the richest men in Hungary and the country's highest clerical official. All the work took place around 1520. Peter Bakoc his nephew, inherited the castle after his uncles passing—along with his wealth, after Bakoc, his sister and brother-in-law took over the residence.
In 1547 the castle was taken seized by the knight Melichar Balassa and his bandit retinue, until the king forced him out a year later in 1548.
Around 1585 fears of Ottoman advances were raising in the country and vast fortification works were initiated, led by the Italian fortress architect G. Ferrari. This is probably why the Ottoman army failed in both its attempts during the years 1585 and 1602.
After these events the castle became part of the King's fiefdom, which he rewarded in 1622 to noble Peter Kohary, for his outstanding actions and efforts in fighting the Ottomans. The 17th Century was a relatively peaceful time for Cabrad Castle, going through the anti-Habsburg rebellions without much event or issue. But also around this time the road which was the castle's reasoning began to lose its importance.
In 1750 the Koháry family gave up on Cabrad Castle as their residence, keeping it for a time as just a summer home until Ferencz József Koháry de Csábrág put the castle to blaze 1812, since then it has remained the ruin it is today, slowly being reclaimed by the surrounding forests.References:
Derbent is the southernmost city in Russia, occupying the narrow gateway between the Caspian Sea and the Caucasus Mountains connecting the Eurasian steppes to the north and the Iranian Plateau to the south. Derbent claims to be the oldest city in Russia with historical documentation dating to the 8th century BCE. Due to its strategic location, over the course of history, the city changed ownership many times, particularly among the Persian, Arab, Mongol, Timurid, Shirvan and Iranian kingdoms.
Derbent has archaeological structures over 5,000 years old. As a result of this geographic peculiarity, the city developed between two walls, stretching from the mountains to the sea. These fortifications were continuously employed for a millennium and a half, longer than any other extant fortress in the world.
A traditionally and historically Iranian city, the first intensive settlement in the Derbent area dates from the 8th century BC. The site was intermittently controlled by the Persian monarchs, starting from the 6th century BC. Until the 4th century AD, it was part of Caucasian Albania which was a satrap of the Achaemenid Persian Empire. In the 5th century Derbent functioned as a border fortress and the seat of Sassanid Persians. Because of its strategic position on the northern branch of the Silk Route, the fortress was contested by the Khazars in the course of the Khazar-Arab Wars. In 654, Derbent was captured by the Arabs.
The Sassanid fortress does not exist any more, as the famous Derbent fortress as it stands today was built from the 12th century onward. Derbent became a strong military outpost and harbour of the Sassanid empire. During the 5th and 6th centuries, Derbent also became an important center for spreading the Christian faith in the Caucasus.
The site continued to be of great strategic importance until the 19th century. Today the fortifications consist of two parallel defence walls and Naryn-Kala Citadel. The walls are 3.6km long, stretching from the sea up to the mountains. They were built from stone and had 73 defence towers. 9 out of the 14 original gates remain.
In Naryn-Kala Citadel most of the old buildings, including a palace and a church, are now in ruins. It also holds baths and one of the oldest mosques in the former USSR.
In 2003, UNESCO included the old part of Derbent with traditional buildings in the World Heritage List.