Oponice Castle was probably built in the second half of the 13th century by son Peter from the Csák clan. The castle was first mentioned in 1300 as 'Oponh'. Until the death of Máte Csák of Trencsén in 1321, Oponice Castle guarded part of his wide domain in the central Nitra area. The castle was later administered by the royal exchequer until it was passed in 1392 into the hereditary possession of Nicholas Ewres, founder of the Apponyi dynasty.
The castle was expanded and its defenses strengthened, particularly during the threat from Ottoman Turkey, allowing it to withstand enemy onslaughts. Unfortunately, a family dispute over land dating from 1612 meant the end of the castle, punctuated by a fire in 1645 which caused the castle owners to finally abandon it. From time to time the castle was used by the Kurucs, Hungarian insurgents fighting the Habsburgs, until Imperial forces conquered it and had the castle demolished in the early 17th century. The castle's aristocratic tradition remained bound to the Apponyis, who maintained and preserved it until the death of the final descendant from this family, Henrich Apponyi, in 1935.
The castle’s distinct silhouette covers the preserved gun bastion and northeast Renaissance castle up to the third floor.References:
Narikala is an ancient fortress overlooking Tbilisi, the capital of Georgia, and the Kura River. The fortress consists of two walled sections on a steep hill between the sulphur baths and the botanical gardens of Tbilisi. On the lower court there is the recently restored St Nicholas church. Newly built in 1996–1997, it replaces the original 13th-century church that was destroyed in a fire. The new church is of 'prescribed cross' type, having doors on three sides. The internal part of the church is decorated with the frescos showing scenes both from the Bible and history of Georgia.
The fortress was established in the 4th century and it was a Persian citadel. It was considerably expanded by the Umayyads in the 7th century and later, by king David the Builder (1089–1125). Most of extant fortifications date from the 16th and 17th centuries. In 1827, parts of the fortress were damaged by an earthquake and demolished.