Oponice Castle was probably built in the second half of the 13th century by son Peter from the Csák clan. The castle was first mentioned in 1300 as 'Oponh'. Until the death of Máte Csák of Trencsén in 1321, Oponice Castle guarded part of his wide domain in the central Nitra area. The castle was later administered by the royal exchequer until it was passed in 1392 into the hereditary possession of Nicholas Ewres, founder of the Apponyi dynasty.
The castle was expanded and its defenses strengthened, particularly during the threat from Ottoman Turkey, allowing it to withstand enemy onslaughts. Unfortunately, a family dispute over land dating from 1612 meant the end of the castle, punctuated by a fire in 1645 which caused the castle owners to finally abandon it. From time to time the castle was used by the Kurucs, Hungarian insurgents fighting the Habsburgs, until Imperial forces conquered it and had the castle demolished in the early 17th century. The castle's aristocratic tradition remained bound to the Apponyis, who maintained and preserved it until the death of the final descendant from this family, Henrich Apponyi, in 1935.
The castle’s distinct silhouette covers the preserved gun bastion and northeast Renaissance castle up to the third floor.References:
The eight towns in south-eastern Sicily, including Ragusa, were all rebuilt after 1693 on or beside towns existing at the time of the earthquake which took place in that year. They represent a considerable collective undertaking, successfully carried out at a high level of architectural and artistic achievement. Keeping within the late Baroque style of the day, they also depict distinctive innovations in town planning and urban building. Together with seven other cities in the Val di Noto, it is part of a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
In 1693 Ragusa was devastated by a huge earthquake, which killed some 5,000 inhabitants. Following this catastrophe the city was largely rebuilt, and many Baroque buildings from this time remain in the city. Most of the population moved to a new settlement in the former district of Patro, calling this new municipality 'Ragusa Superiore' (Upper Ragusa) and the ancient city 'Ragusa Inferiore' (Lower Ragusa). The two cities remained separated until 1926, when they were fused together to become a provincial capital in 1927.