Trenèín Castle is relatively large renovated castle, towering on a steep limestone cliff directly above the city of Trenèín. It is a dominant feature not only of Trenèín, but also of the entire Považie region. The castle is a national monument.
History of the castle cliff dates back to the Roman Empire, what is proved by the inscription on the castle cliff proclaiming the victory of Roman legion against Germans in the year 179.
Today’s castle was probably built on the hill-fort. The first proven building on the hill was the Great Moravian rotunda from the 9th century and later there was a stone residential tower, which served to protect the Kingdom of Hungary and the western border. In the late 13th century the castle became a property of Palatine Matúš Csák, who became Mr. of Váh and Tatras.
Matúš Csák of Trenèín built a tower, still known as Matthew’s, which is a dominant determinant of the whole building. Another owner of the castle, Sigismund of Luxemburg, built a new palace and a chapel in the 15th century. All these buildings have been restored and are now used for museum purposes.
The 15th century was the century of fortification reinforcement, caused byHussite ventures, which directed to Slovakia. In the late 15th century, the castle together with the entire town belonged to Stephen Zápoµský, who began extensive alterations.
Trenèín Castle, together with the Spiš Castle and Devín Castle, belonged to the largest European castles in 1540-1560. At that time a star-defense artillery was built and modernized in accordance with historical patterns. The silhouette of the castle has changed – tall Gothic roofs were exchanged for horizontal Renaissance attics with swallow-tails, which were typical Italian elements of the 16th century. The castle was damaged during a fire in 1790. Nowadays, the castle is under a complex reconstruction. Restored objects are progressively used for museum purposes and for exposures.
A unique view offers from the Matthew’s tower. It offers an open view to the White Carpathian Mountains. Spaces of the Matthew’s tower document the housing of the nobility in the mid of the 11th century. Barbora’s palace interior and the cannon bastion have a modern renovated vault system.References:
Ängsö Castle was first named as "Engsev" in a royal charter by king Canute I of Sweden (r. 1167-1196), in which he stated that he had inherited the property after his father Eric IX of Sweden. Until 1272, it was owned by the Riseberga Abbey, and then taken over by Gregers Birgersson.
From 1475 until 1710, it was owned by the Sparre family. The current castle was built as a fortress by riksråd Bengt Fadersson Sparre in the 1480s. In 1522, Ängsö Castle was taken after a siege by king Gustav Vasa, since its owner, Fadersson's son Knut Bengtsson, sided with Christian II of Denmark. However, in 1538 it was given by the king to Bengtsson's daughter Hillevi Knutsdotter, who was married to Arvid Trolle.
In 1710, the castle was taken over by Carl Piper and Christina Piper. Ängsö Castle was owned by the Piper family from 1710 until 1971, and is now owned by the Westmanna foundation. The castle building itself was made into a museum in 1959 and was made a listed building in 1965. It is currently opened to visitors during the summers.
The castle is a cubical building in four stores made by stone and bricks. The lower parts is preserved from the middle ages. It was redecorated and expanded in the 1630s. The 4th storey as well as the roof is from the expansion of Carl Hårleman from 1740-41. It gained its current appearance in the 1740s.