Boldogkő Castle towers above the village atop a north-south elongated and irregularly oval-shaped andesite mountain top. The exact time of its construction is unknown, but it is certain that it was built after the Mongol invasion in the mid-13th century. The stronghold, designed with an interior turret, defended the road to Košice and the Hernad Valley. Presently, the castle is in the hands of the local municipality.
A new major renovation and excavation effort began in 2002. The castle’s profile changed dramatically with the reconstruction of two towers (a gate tower and a southern tower). Moreover, a 100 m walkway was constructed running along the internal courtyard, offering splendid views through the arrow slits to the north and west, and over the ramparts. Another walkway was built along the knife-edge ridge of the so-called “Lion’s Rock,” leading to a magnificent lookout platform.
The two-story fortress palace was a concrete slab-reinforced flat-roofed building. In order to be better able to utilise the space, a higher roof was integrated during renovations. The large and stately knight’s hall is the result. The wing also houses an exhibition of thousands of tin/lead soldiers and their meticulously detailed dioramas depicting the most important battles in Hungarian history. The scenes can even be utilised to teach history during class tips. This exhibition is the largest of its kind in Central Europe.References:
The Kalozha church of Saints Boris and Gleb is the oldest extant structure in Hrodna. It is the only surviving monument of ancient Black Ruthenian architecture, distinguished from other Orthodox churches by prolific use of polychrome faceted stones of blue, green or red tint which could be arranged to form crosses or other figures on the wall.
The church is a cross-domed building supported by six circular pillars. The outside is articulated with projecting pilasters, which have rounded corners, as does the building itself. The ante-nave contains the choir loft, accessed by a narrow gradatory in the western wall. Two other stairs were discovered in the walls of the side apses; their purpose is not clear. The floor is lined with ceramic tiles forming decorative patterns. The interior was lined with innumerable built-in pitchers, which usually serve in Eastern Orthodox churches as resonators but in this case were scored to produce decorative effects. For this reason, the central nave has never been painted.
The church was built before 1183 and survived intact, depicted in the 1840s by Michał Kulesza, until 1853, when the south wall collapsed, due to its perilous location on the high bank of the Neman. During restoration works, some fragments of 12th-century frescoes were discovered in the apses. Remains of four other churches in the same style, decorated with pitchers and coloured stones instead of frescoes, were discovered in Hrodna and Vaŭkavysk. They all date back to the turn of the 13th century, as do remains of the first stone palace in the Old Hrodna Castle.
In 2004, the church was included in the Tentative List of UNESCO"s World Heritage Sites.