Dobczyce Castle was first mentioned in written sources in 1362, but had been fortified since 1311. In the time of Casimir III the Great, the walls were from 5 to 9 meters thick, and the castle was a fortified stronghold. In 1398, the castle was the abode of King Władysław II Jagiełło and his wife Jadwiga. In 1473, for several months, Prince Casimir stayed here after returning from an unsuccessful expedition.
The Lubomirski family, who ruled the castle from 1585, rebuilt the Gothic fortress into a Renaissance residence in the years 1593-1594. The clocktower, chapel and fountain were added. By 1620 the castle had 70 rooms and 3 towers. In the 1960s the site was extensively excavated.References:
The city walls of Avila were built in the 11th century to protect the citizens from the Moors. They have been well maintained throughout the centuries and are now a major tourist attraction as well as a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Visitors can walk around about half of the length of the walls.
The layout of the city is an even quadrilateral with a perimeter of 2,516 m. Its walls, which consist in part of stones already used in earlier constructions, have an average thickness of 3 m. Access to the city is afforded by nine gates of different periods; twin 20 m high towers, linked by a semi-circular arch, flank the oldest ones, Puerta de San Vicente and Puerta del Alcázar.