Jędrzejów Abbey is a former Cistercian abbey founded in 1140. The convent, under the lead of Fr. Nicholas, came to these lands in 1114 from the Morimond Abbey in Champagne. The consecration act from 1149 elevated the monastery to a rank of an abbey and king Bolesław IV the Curly gave it a foundation privilege which exempted it from ducal tributes and charges. The ceremony of consecrating the new church and devoting it to the Assumed Blessed Virgin Mary took place in 1210.
In 1447, at the decline of the Middle Ages, Mikołaj Odrowąż became the abbot of the monastery and soon after he decided to rebuild and modernise the Romanesque church and in 1475 the abbey was transformed in the Gothic style. Additionally, a separate building of the abbey hospice was erected. The abbot hired many acknowledged artists to decorate the temple, e.g. Veit Stoss. In 1479, the devastated 12th-century parish church was replaced by a new Gothic church of the Holy Trinity. The convent was liquidated in 1819 and in 1831 its buildings were turned into a field hospital. The pastoral service was taken over by Franciscan monks, however, in 1870 they were also dismissed for supporting the January Uprising. Instead, in 1872 the Russian authorities placed a teaching seminary in here. The Cistercians returned to Jędrzejów in 1945 and in 1953 the monastery gained the rank of a priorate, while in 1989 it again became an abbey.
In the modern times, the monastery underwent a thorough makeover, especially its wings, one of which was extremely devastated and got deconstructed. Only the remains of the chapter house have survived (a few architectural details, decorated with floral relief) - some of them have been transported to the church lapidary, other to the National Museum of the Przypkowski Family. Consequently, today the monastery has there three multi-storey wings from the 13th and 15th centuries.
The post-Cistercian Church dates from the 13th century. Its Romanesque outlook was thoroughly changed in the 15th century and the most radical changes took place after a fire in 1725, when the whole temple gained a Baroque decor. Therefore, the inside combines architectural elements from various epochs.References:
The Seaplane Harbour is the newest and one of the most exciting museums in Tallinn. It tells stories about the Estonian maritime and military history. The museum’s display, that comprises of more than a couple of hundred large exhibits, revitalizes the colourful history of Estonia.
British built submarine Lembit weighing 600 tones is the centrepiece of the new museum. Built in 1936 for the Estonian navy, Lembit served in the World War II under the Soviet flag. It remained in service for 75 years being the oldest submarine in the World still in use until it was hauled ashore in 2011. Despite its long history, Lembit is still in an excellent condition offering a glimpse of the 1930s art of technology.
Another exciting attraction is a full-scale replica of Short Type 184, a British pre-World War II seaplane, which was also used by the Estonian armed forces. Short Type 184 has earned its place in military history by being the first aircraft ever to attack an enemy’s ship with an air-launched torpedo. Since none of the original seaplanes have survived, the replica in Seaplane Harbour is the only full-size representation of the aircraft in the whole World.
Simulators mimicking a flight above Tallinn, around-the-world journey in the yellow submarine, navigating on the Tallinn bay make this museum heaven for kids or adventurous adults.
Seaplane Harbour operates in architecturally unique hangars built almost a century ago, in 1916 and 1917, as a part of Peter the Great sea fortress. These hangars are the World’s first reinforced concrete shell structures of such a great size. Charles Lindbergh, the man who performed the first solo flight across the Atlantic Ocean, landed here in 1930s.
On the outdoor area visitors can tour a collection of historic ships, including the Suur Tõll, Europe's largest steam-powered icebreaker.