Jędrzejów Abbey is a former Cistercian abbey founded in 1140. The convent, under the lead of Fr. Nicholas, came to these lands in 1114 from the Morimond Abbey in Champagne. The consecration act from 1149 elevated the monastery to a rank of an abbey and king Bolesław IV the Curly gave it a foundation privilege which exempted it from ducal tributes and charges. The ceremony of consecrating the new church and devoting it to the Assumed Blessed Virgin Mary took place in 1210.
In 1447, at the decline of the Middle Ages, Mikołaj Odrowąż became the abbot of the monastery and soon after he decided to rebuild and modernise the Romanesque church and in 1475 the abbey was transformed in the Gothic style. Additionally, a separate building of the abbey hospice was erected. The abbot hired many acknowledged artists to decorate the temple, e.g. Veit Stoss. In 1479, the devastated 12th-century parish church was replaced by a new Gothic church of the Holy Trinity. The convent was liquidated in 1819 and in 1831 its buildings were turned into a field hospital. The pastoral service was taken over by Franciscan monks, however, in 1870 they were also dismissed for supporting the January Uprising. Instead, in 1872 the Russian authorities placed a teaching seminary in here. The Cistercians returned to Jędrzejów in 1945 and in 1953 the monastery gained the rank of a priorate, while in 1989 it again became an abbey.
In the modern times, the monastery underwent a thorough makeover, especially its wings, one of which was extremely devastated and got deconstructed. Only the remains of the chapter house have survived (a few architectural details, decorated with floral relief) - some of them have been transported to the church lapidary, other to the National Museum of the Przypkowski Family. Consequently, today the monastery has there three multi-storey wings from the 13th and 15th centuries.
The post-Cistercian Church dates from the 13th century. Its Romanesque outlook was thoroughly changed in the 15th century and the most radical changes took place after a fire in 1725, when the whole temple gained a Baroque decor. Therefore, the inside combines architectural elements from various epochs.References:
Roman Walls of Lugo are an exceptional architectural, archaeological and constructive legacy of Roman engineering, dating from the 3rd and 4th centuries AD. The Walls are built of internal and external stone facings of slate with some granite, with a core filling of a conglomerate of slate slabs and worked stone pieces from Roman buildings, interlocked with lime mortar.
Their total length of 2117 m in the shape of an oblong rectangle occupies an area of 1.68 ha. Their height varies between 8 and 10 m, with a width of 4.2 m, reaching 7 m in some specific points. The walls still contain 85 external towers, 10 gates (five of which are original and five that were opened in modern times), four staircases and two ramps providing access to the walkway along the top of the walls, one of which is internal and the other external. Each tower contained access stairs leading from the intervallum to the wall walk of town wall, of which a total of 21 have been discovered to date.
The defences of Lugo are the most complete and best preserved example of Roman military architecture in the Western Roman Empire.
Despite the renovation work carried out, the walls conserve their original layout and the construction features associated with their defensive purpose, with walls, battlements, towers, fortifications, both modern and original gates and stairways, and a moat.
Since they were built, the walls have defined the layout and growth of the city, which was declared a Historical-Artistic Ensemble in 1973, forming a part of it and becoming an emblematic structure that can be freely accessed to walk along. The local inhabitants and visitors alike have used them as an area for enjoyment and as a part of urban life for centuries.
The fortifications were added to UNESCO"s World Heritage List in late 2000 and are a popular tourist attraction.