Gutenzell Abbey was a Cistercian nunnery but its origins are unknown. According to legend, the monastery was founded in the 12th century by two sisters of the aristocratic family Schlossberg, whose castle was nearby.
However, the first record of Gutenzell Abbey was its refoundation, or possibly confirmation, charter from 1237 as a Cistercian monastery. In its early days the monastery was favoured and supported particularly by the noble family of Aichheim. The first abbess of Gutenzell Abbey was Mechthilda von Aichheim ruling from 1237 to 1243. Other local noble families also patronised the abbey. Following a huge fire in the period between the original foundation and the reconfirmation in 1237, several nobles of the surrounding area provided means for reconstructing the monastic buildings. During its history, the monastery housed predominantly noble women.
Already in 1238, the refounded abbey was officially recognised by Pope Gregory IX who also put it under the spiritual supervision of Salem Abbey which lasted until 1753 when the task was transferred to Kaisheim Abbey.
Most parts of the monastery had to be rebuilt in 1369 following a disastrous fire caused by lightning. In 1474 the monastery church Saints Cosmas and Damian became the parish church of the village of Gutenzell which had developed around the abbey. As it now stands, it is a medieval structure re-worked in the Baroque style. However, the origins of the church can be dated back to the 12th century, indicated by traces in its walls.
In the Later Middle Ages Gutenzell Abbey gradually managed to achieve imperial immediacy, the legal basis of which was formed by two privileges by Emperor Sigismund in 1417 and 1437. From 1521, the abbey's chamberlain represented the Abbess of Gutenzell during meetings of the Swabian Circle.
A fire in 1522 caused considerable damage, destroying the cloister. Soon after in 1525 the abbey was looted by revolting farmers during the German Peasants' War. During the Thirty Years' War the nuns fled approaching Swedish troops to Styria in 1632. The convent remained there until 1647, shortly before the end of the war in 1648. However, on their withdrawal, Swedish troops laid fire to the abbey in December 1646. In 1685 Gutenzell Abbey received the privilege of inflicting high justice.
In the second half of the 18th century the last major refurbishment of the monastery church was carried out in 1755-56 by the Wessobrunn stuccoist Franz Xaver Feuchtmayer the Elder, possibly following plans by Dominikus Zimmermann, whose daughter Maria Alexandra was prioress at the time. Later she would be abbess from 1759 to 1776. The frescoes are by Johann Georg Dieffenbrunner. The pulpit from 1756 was made by Stephan Luidl who also created the high altar in 1762, possibly also to designs by Dominikus Zimmermann.
At the beginning of the 19th century, Gutenzell Abbey was in possession not only of the village of Gutenzell but also owned parts of other villages with a total of 1189 subjects. Amongst others it ruled over a third of the villages of Achstetten and Kirchberg and half of Oberholzheim.
In 1803, the abbey was dissolved during secularisation and its assets transferred first to the Counts of Toerring, and then in 1806 to the Kingdom of Württemberg. At that time Gutenzell Abbey housed 36 nuns, a number which had been more or less consistent since the 16th century. The abbey was given a new rule by the Württemberg government which now functioned as superior. However, new nuns were not allowed to enter the convent. 28 nuns still lived in the monastery in 1812. The tradition of Gutenzell Abbey became extinct with the death of the last nun in 1851, the last abbess, Maria Justina von Erolzheim, having already died in 1809.
The premises were almost entirely demolished in 1864. The former monastery church is now part of the Upper Swabian Baroque Route.References:
The Petersberg Citadel is one of the largest extant early-modern citadels in Europe and covers the whole north-western part of the Erfurt city centre. It was built after 1665 on Petersberg hill and was in military use until 1963. It dates from a time when Erfurt was ruled by the Electors of Mainz and is a unique example of the European style of fortress construction. Beneath the citadel is an underground maze of passageways that can be visited on guided tours organised by Erfurt Tourist Office.
The citadel was originally built on the site of a medieval Benedictine Monastery and the earliest parts of the complex date from the 12th century. Erfurt has also been ruled by Sweden, Prussia, Napoleon, the German Empire, the Nazis, and post-World War II Soviet occupying forces, and it was part of the German Democratic Republic (East Germany). All of these regimes used Petersberg Citadel and had an influence on its development. The baroque fortress was in military use until 1963. Since German reunification in 1990, the citadel has undergone significant restoration and it is now open to the public as a historic site.