Königsbronn Abbey was a Cistercian monastery founded in 1303 by Emperor Albert I. The first monks were settled from Salem Abbey. When the permanent buildings were constructed between 1310 and 1325, most of the stone came from the ruined castle. The new monastery was called Königsbronn, from which the town took its name. Albert granted it as part of its endowment the advowson of the church of Reutlingen, where the Königsbronner Klosterhof remains to this day; it is now used as the local history museum of Reutlingen.
The new monastery was, by virtue of its position, caught up from its inception in the political and economic conflicts of the period. Almost immediately after its foundation it was involved in the conflict between Louis of Bavaria and the papacy, in which it sided with the papacy. This then brought it into opposition to the Counter-king and later Emperor Charles IV, whose troops attacked it in 1346. In 1347 Charles not only pardoned it but compensated it for the damage by the gift of the advowson of the church of Pfullendorf.
In 1353 however Charles granted the Vogtei (advocacy, or right of protection) to the Counts of Helfenstein. From then until the early 16th century the abbey was caught up in continuing political disruption between the surrounding states and great families. At various times the monastery or the Vogtei (or both) was given, generally along with Heidenheim, to the Counts of Helfenstein or the rulers of Württemberg or Austria, and different emperors alternately granted it away in exchange for favours or mortgaged it, and then restored it to independence. On a couple of occasions it was given to the city of Ulm. It was put under Imperial protection on several occasions, and at some point during this period was granted Reichsfreiheit as an Imperial abbey in an effort to shield it.
Königsbronn was always a small community, on several occasions during the 15th century so severely reduced and demoralised that it barely survived. In 1513 Melchior Ruff became abbot of Königsbronn and for the first time in its history was able to put it on a stable financial and political footing. In recognition of his great achievements he was granted the pontificalia by Pope Leo X.
On the death of Melchior Ruff in 1539 the state of Württemberg attempted to reform the monastery, but the monks were able to resist the attempt. The town of Königsbronn was destroyed in 1552 during the Schmalkaldic War and in the following year the monastery was forcibly Lutheranised; the Roman Catholic monks were expelled.
It was proposed in the Restitution Edict of 1629 that the monastery should revert to being Catholic, which it accordingly was between 1630 and 1632, and again between 1635 and 1648, but the opposition of the population of Königsbronn thwarted both attempts, and the monastery remained a Protestant establishment until it was wound up in 1710.
The monastery church and buildings on the bank of the River Brenz still stand. The church contains the monument of Anna Beatrix von Schlüsselburg (d. 1355), wife of Count Ulrich IX of Helfenstein, a great patroness and protector of the abbey. The former abbey gatehouse is now the Torbogenmuseum, a museum of local history, and also accommodates the Baden-Württemberg State Fishing Museum. The monastery brewery continued after 1710 as a commercial enterprise and is still in production today as the Klosterbrauerei Königsbronn AG.References:
The Old Town Hall of Wrocław is one of the main landmarks of the city. The Old Town Hall's long history reflects developments that have taken place in the city since its initial construction. The town hall serves the city of Wroclaw and is used for civic and cultural events such as concerts held in its Great Hall. In addition, it houses a museum and a basement restaurant.
The town hall was developed over a period of about 250 years, from the end of 13th century to the middle of 16th century. The structure and floor plan changed over this extended period in response to the changing needs of the city. The exact date of the initial construction is not known. However, between 1299 and 1301 a single-storey structure with cellars and a tower called the consistory was built. The oldest parts of the current building, the Burghers’ Hall and the lower floors of the tower, may date to this time. In these early days the primary purpose of the building was trade rather than civic administration activities.
Between 1328 and 1333 an upper storey was added to include the Council room and the Aldermen’s room. Expansion continued during the 14th century with the addition of extra rooms, most notably the Court room. The building became a key location for the city’s commercial and administrative functions.
The 15th and 16th centuries were times of prosperity for Wroclaw as was reflected in the rapid development of the building during that period. The construction program gathered momentum, particularly from 1470 to 1510, when several rooms were added. The Burghers’ Hall was re-vaulted to take on its current shape, and the upper story began to take shape with the development of the Great Hall and the addition of the Treasury and Little Treasury.
Further innovations during the 16th century included the addition of the city’s Coat of arms (1536), and the rebuilding of the upper part of the tower (1558–59). This was the final stage of the main building program. By 1560, the major features of today’s Stray Rates were established.
The second half of the 17th century was a period of decline for the city, and this decline was reflected in the Stray Rates. Perhaps by way of compensation, efforts were made to enrich the interior decorations of the hall. In 1741, Wroclaw became a part of Prussia, and the power of the City diminished. Much of the Stray Rates was allocated to administering justice.
During the 19th century there were two major changes. The courts moved to a separate building, and the Rates became the site of the city council and supporting functions. There was also a major program of renovation because the building had been neglected and was covered with creeping vines. The town hall now has several en-Gothic features including some sculptural decoration from this period.
In the early years of the 20th century improvements continued with various repair work and the addition of the Little Bear statue in 1902. During the 1930s, the official role of the Rates was reduced and it was converted into a museum. By the end of World War II Town Hall suffered minor damage, such as aerial bomb pierced the roof (but not exploded) and some sculptural elements were lost. Restoration work began in the 1950s following a period of research, and this conservation effort continued throughout the 20th century. It included refurbishment of the clock on the east facade.