The Roman Villa of Desenzano del Garda, with rich mosaics, is one of the residential buildings of the best preserved late Roman age of Northern Italy. A group of rooms with heating systems to cavity is from the first half of the 1st century AD, which probably belongs to the General system of the complex. In the first half of the 4th century, the mansion underwent a complete and organic reconstruction led to the creation of a wing used for representation, another mainly residential and a third character.
Archeological excavations reveal that the villa was destroyed by fire. The villa still retains the charm of the original glitz and one can still admire the remains of mosaics, walls and foundations. At the entrance of the villa stands a small museum where you can see the finds recovered from the excavations. These include the remains of the statues and portraits are very interesting and a mill for the pressing of grapes or olives. Inside the Museum a cockpit also allows you to see a hypocaust, a hypocaust that was part of a series of rooms with brick pillars on which rested the floor likely Augustan era.
The Roman Villa of Desenzano is divided into three sectors. In the field to include an octagonal vestibule from which you came to the beach and the Marina, the peristyle, a courtyard surrounded on all sides by porticos and adorned with statues, an atrium to forceps for came to the room triclinium with three aspes and representation. The triclinium was covered by a dome roof or barrel vaulted. The local and the peristyle were paved with mosaics showing geometric patterns and vegetal motifs which created colour effects. Probably in the Central apse of the triclinium there was a window from which you could see the viridarium, enclosed garden at the back by a fountain with niches. After a series of small rooms used in services there was the entrance to the villa from which there was the road separating the sector to sector b. In this sector, which underwent numerous transformations in Roman times, there are various clubs and residential environments have geometric mosaics supposedly dating to the late 3rd century or early 4th century after Christ.References:
Royal Palace of Naples was one of the four residences near Naples used by the Bourbon Kings during their rule of the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies (1734-1860): the others were the palaces of Caserta, Capodimonte overlooking Naples, and the third Portici, on the slopes of Vesuvius.
Construction on the present building was begun in the 17th century by the architect Domenico Fontana. Intended to house the King Philip III of Spain on a visit never fulfilled to this part of his kingdom, instead it initially housed the Viceroy Fernando Ruiz de Castro, count of Lemos. By 1616, the facade had been completed, and by 1620, the interior was frescoed by Battistello Caracciolo, Giovanni Balducci, and Belisario Corenzio. The decoration of the Royal Chapel of Assumption was not completed until 1644 by Antonio Picchiatti.
In 1734, with the arrival of Charles III of Spain to Naples, the palace became the royal residence of the Bourbons. On the occasion of his marriage to Maria Amalia of Saxony in 1738, Francesco De Mura and Domenico Antonio Vaccaro helped remodel the interior. Further modernization took place under Ferdinand I of the Two Sicilies. In 1768, on the occasion of his marriage to Maria Carolina of Austria, under the direction of Ferdinando Fuga, the great hall was rebuilt and the court theater added. During the second half of the 18th century, a 'new wing' was added, which in 1927 became the Vittorio Emanuele III National Library. By the 18th century, the royal residence was moved to Reggia of Caserta, as that inland town was more defensible from naval assault, as well as more distant from the often-rebellious populace of Naples.
During the Napoleonic occupation the palace was enriched by Joachim Murat and his wife, Caroline Bonaparte, with Neoclassic decorations and furnishings. However, a fire in 1837 damaged many rooms, and required restoration from 1838 to 1858 under the direction of Gaetano Genovese. Further additions of a Party Wing and a Belvedere were made in this period. At the corner of the palace with San Carlo Theatre, a new facade was created that obscured the viceroyal palace of Pedro de Toledo.
In 1922, it was decided to transfer here the contents of the National Library. The transfer of library collections was made by 1925.
The library suffered from bombing during World War II and the subsequent military occupation of the building caused serious damage. Today, the palace and adjacent grounds house the famous Teatro San Carlo, the smaller Teatrino di Corte (recently restored), the Biblioteca Nazionale Vittorio Emanuele III, a museum, and offices, including those of the regional tourist board.