The Roman Villa of Desenzano del Garda, with rich mosaics, is one of the residential buildings of the best preserved late Roman age of Northern Italy. A group of rooms with heating systems to cavity is from the first half of the 1st century AD, which probably belongs to the General system of the complex. In the first half of the 4th century, the mansion underwent a complete and organic reconstruction led to the creation of a wing used for representation, another mainly residential and a third character.
Archeological excavations reveal that the villa was destroyed by fire. The villa still retains the charm of the original glitz and one can still admire the remains of mosaics, walls and foundations. At the entrance of the villa stands a small museum where you can see the finds recovered from the excavations. These include the remains of the statues and portraits are very interesting and a mill for the pressing of grapes or olives. Inside the Museum a cockpit also allows you to see a hypocaust, a hypocaust that was part of a series of rooms with brick pillars on which rested the floor likely Augustan era.
The Roman Villa of Desenzano is divided into three sectors. In the field to include an octagonal vestibule from which you came to the beach and the Marina, the peristyle, a courtyard surrounded on all sides by porticos and adorned with statues, an atrium to forceps for came to the room triclinium with three aspes and representation. The triclinium was covered by a dome roof or barrel vaulted. The local and the peristyle were paved with mosaics showing geometric patterns and vegetal motifs which created colour effects. Probably in the Central apse of the triclinium there was a window from which you could see the viridarium, enclosed garden at the back by a fountain with niches. After a series of small rooms used in services there was the entrance to the villa from which there was the road separating the sector to sector b. In this sector, which underwent numerous transformations in Roman times, there are various clubs and residential environments have geometric mosaics supposedly dating to the late 3rd century or early 4th century after Christ.References:
Derbent is the southernmost city in Russia, occupying the narrow gateway between the Caspian Sea and the Caucasus Mountains connecting the Eurasian steppes to the north and the Iranian Plateau to the south. Derbent claims to be the oldest city in Russia with historical documentation dating to the 8th century BCE. Due to its strategic location, over the course of history, the city changed ownership many times, particularly among the Persian, Arab, Mongol, Timurid, Shirvan and Iranian kingdoms.
Derbent has archaeological structures over 5,000 years old. As a result of this geographic peculiarity, the city developed between two walls, stretching from the mountains to the sea. These fortifications were continuously employed for a millennium and a half, longer than any other extant fortress in the world.
A traditionally and historically Iranian city, the first intensive settlement in the Derbent area dates from the 8th century BC. The site was intermittently controlled by the Persian monarchs, starting from the 6th century BC. Until the 4th century AD, it was part of Caucasian Albania which was a satrap of the Achaemenid Persian Empire. In the 5th century Derbent functioned as a border fortress and the seat of Sassanid Persians. Because of its strategic position on the northern branch of the Silk Route, the fortress was contested by the Khazars in the course of the Khazar-Arab Wars. In 654, Derbent was captured by the Arabs.
The Sassanid fortress does not exist any more, as the famous Derbent fortress as it stands today was built from the 12th century onward. Derbent became a strong military outpost and harbour of the Sassanid empire. During the 5th and 6th centuries, Derbent also became an important center for spreading the Christian faith in the Caucasus.
The site continued to be of great strategic importance until the 19th century. Today the fortifications consist of two parallel defence walls and Naryn-Kala Citadel. The walls are 3.6km long, stretching from the sea up to the mountains. They were built from stone and had 73 defence towers. 9 out of the 14 original gates remain.
In Naryn-Kala Citadel most of the old buildings, including a palace and a church, are now in ruins. It also holds baths and one of the oldest mosques in the former USSR.
In 2003, UNESCO included the old part of Derbent with traditional buildings in the World Heritage List.