The Castle of Villafranca di Verona was built starting in 1199, after the Battle of Ponte dei Molini (Mantua), and was completed in 1202. The purpose was to defend the population of Villafranca in casa of sudden attacks from Mantua.
Serraglio, a defensive wall unique in Europe, was built in 1345. It is about 13 miles long. It started from Borghetto and linked five castles: Borghetto, Valeggio, Gherla, Villafranca and Nogarole Rocca. Nowadays, of the Serraglio remains only some traces that can be seen along the right bank of the river Tione.
Inside the walls, there are seven small towers called 'Torresine'. The base of the Mastio (the main tower) was built using some stones that camed from the remains of the Arch of Emperor Tiberius. The wars over time destroyed most of the Castle.
Starting from the year 1450, the Castle was abandoned, and only centuries later, it was bought by some nobles such as Angelo Alessandri or G.B. Simeoni, the Count of Villafranca.
In 1890 the main tower of the castle was rebuilt and a clock was added. Under the main fortress, there is the Church of Christ, the first church of the district of Villafranca. In the inside, there are a fourteenth-century fresco depicting the Crucifixion and three paintings of the eighteenth century painted by Giovanni Battista Lanceni and representing the scourging of Jesus, the Christ mocked and crowned with thorns, and the ascent of Jesus to Calvary. The chapel has been restored in recent times.References:
Roman Walls of Lugo are an exceptional architectural, archaeological and constructive legacy of Roman engineering, dating from the 3rd and 4th centuries AD. The Walls are built of internal and external stone facings of slate with some granite, with a core filling of a conglomerate of slate slabs and worked stone pieces from Roman buildings, interlocked with lime mortar.
Their total length of 2117 m in the shape of an oblong rectangle occupies an area of 1.68 ha. Their height varies between 8 and 10 m, with a width of 4.2 m, reaching 7 m in some specific points. The walls still contain 85 external towers, 10 gates (five of which are original and five that were opened in modern times), four staircases and two ramps providing access to the walkway along the top of the walls, one of which is internal and the other external. Each tower contained access stairs leading from the intervallum to the wall walk of town wall, of which a total of 21 have been discovered to date.
The defences of Lugo are the most complete and best preserved example of Roman military architecture in the Western Roman Empire.
Despite the renovation work carried out, the walls conserve their original layout and the construction features associated with their defensive purpose, with walls, battlements, towers, fortifications, both modern and original gates and stairways, and a moat.
Since they were built, the walls have defined the layout and growth of the city, which was declared a Historical-Artistic Ensemble in 1973, forming a part of it and becoming an emblematic structure that can be freely accessed to walk along. The local inhabitants and visitors alike have used them as an area for enjoyment and as a part of urban life for centuries.
The fortifications were added to UNESCO"s World Heritage List in late 2000 and are a popular tourist attraction.