The Belfry of Thuin is one of 56 belfries of Belgium and France since 1999 classified world heritage of UNESCO. The tower of the old church of Saint-Théodard, built without foundations on slate rock, is undeniably medieval and must date from the time of the greatest development of the city. Specifically in the period between 1153 and 1164 during visits of Bishop Henri-Leez prince decides to erect a tower for the church, Chapter dates from this period.
The excavations undertaken on the site of the Chapter reveal the existence of three successive religious buildings. Probably a Carolingian chapel, a Romanesque church and a Gothic church built in the 16th century on the remains of the previous one. At the time of its destruction in 1811, to make room to dance, the nave had a length of 20 meters and a width of 18 meters. It stood to the east of the tower on the south side of the square of the Chapter.
The tower, considered communal property, escaped the confiscation of Church property during the French Revolution, and thus the sale and demolition. A 1662 storm completely destroyed the belfry roof. The current boom is the work of Everard, master carpenter in Beaumont, with the help of Andry Dagnelie, thudinien7 carpenter. Jean-Baptiste Chermanne conducts a brief restoration of the exterior siding tour4 and major repairs to the college in 1754.
Hit by German artillery August 24, 1914, the damage suffered by the arrow will be permanently repaired in 1952 by Michot carpenters, father and son, Lobbes.
With a total height of 60 meters, the belfry is a square building baroque style, with a tapered base on three levels with sandstone rubble and limestone harp angles. The facing of the four faces is animated by banners and horizontal chains in limestone, increasingly spaced to sommet. These bands sometimes use reused materials such as stone fragments bosses or bearing inscriptions.
The tower is topped by a bell-arrow between four polygonal turrets. The cavetto cornice is supported by modillions in quarter-round. The upper level is illuminated four large semicircular openings lined with strip under supervision archivolt. The face is the tower bears the traces of the missing ship. Until mid-height, it has a seating area rubble grossly limited by the trace of crawling of the roof of the vessel. This part was once pierced by three superimposed arched windows, a door on the ground floor.
On the bottom of the south face are sealed the arms of Peter the Tassier and Nicolas Brussels mayors in 1638-1639, during the work undertaken on the tourn. Below are two empty niches that were to be those of St. Lambert and St. Théodard.
The west side has a timetable of John the Baptist Chermanne tailor the key to Ouverturen. Against the north side is a semicircular staircase tower covered with slate pepperpot, giving access to the second level.
In 1765, the belfry had four large bells. These were recast at the initiative of the Magistrate, that which provoked a conflict between it and the Chapter of the Collegiate who refused to share the cost. The Magistrate had to bear alone the cost of which the melting commissioned in 1763 to Levache and in 1765 and 1766 to Monaux Pierre Givet. The two bells cast by Monaux are still in the belfry. This is Paula, 1765, and Maria, melted in 1766.References:
The Cloth Hall in Kraków dates to the Renaissance and is one of the city's most recognizable icons. It is the central feature of the main market square in the Kraków Old Town (listed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site since 1978).
The hall was once a major centre of international trade. Traveling merchants met there to discuss business and to barter. During its golden age in the 15th century, the hall was the source of a variety of exotic imports from the east – spices, silk, leather and wax – while Kraków itself exported textiles, lead, and salt from the Wieliczka Salt Mine.
Kraków was Poland's capital city and was among the largest cities in Europe already from before the time of the Renaissance. However, its decline started with the move of the capital to Warsaw in the very end of the 16th century. The city's decline was hastened by wars and politics leading to the Partitions of Poland at the end of the 18th century. By the time of the architectural restoration proposed for the cloth hall in 1870 under Austrian rule, much of the historic city center was decrepit. A change in political and economic fortunes for the Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria ushered in a revival due to newly established Legislative Assembly or Sejm of the Land. The successful renovation of the Cloth Hall, based on design by Tomasz Pryliński and supervised by Mayor Mikołaj Zyblikiewicz, Sejm Marshal, was one of the most notable achievements of this period.
The hall has hosted many distinguished guests over the centuries and is still used to entertain monarchs and dignitaries, such as Charles, Prince of Wales and Emperor Akihito of Japan, who was welcomed here in 2002. In the past, balls were held here, most notably after Prince Józef Poniatowski had briefly liberated the city from the Austrians in 1809. Aside from its history and cultural value, the hall still is still used as a center of commerce.
On the upper floor of the hall is the Sukiennice Museum division of the National Museum, Kraków. It holds the largest permanent exhibit of the 19th-century Polish painting and sculpture, in four grand exhibition halls arranged by historical period and the theme extending into an entire artistic epoch. The museum was upgraded in 2010 with new technical equipment, storerooms, service spaces as well as improved thematic layout for the display.
The Gallery of 19th-Century Polish Art was a major cultural venue from the moment it opened on October 7, 1879. It features late Baroque, Rococo, and Classicist 18th-century portraits and battle scenes by Polish and foreign pre-Romantics.