The Belfry of Thuin is one of 56 belfries of Belgium and France since 1999 classified world heritage of UNESCO. The tower of the old church of Saint-Théodard, built without foundations on slate rock, is undeniably medieval and must date from the time of the greatest development of the city. Specifically in the period between 1153 and 1164 during visits of Bishop Henri-Leez prince decides to erect a tower for the church, Chapter dates from this period.
The excavations undertaken on the site of the Chapter reveal the existence of three successive religious buildings. Probably a Carolingian chapel, a Romanesque church and a Gothic church built in the 16th century on the remains of the previous one. At the time of its destruction in 1811, to make room to dance, the nave had a length of 20 meters and a width of 18 meters. It stood to the east of the tower on the south side of the square of the Chapter.
The tower, considered communal property, escaped the confiscation of Church property during the French Revolution, and thus the sale and demolition. A 1662 storm completely destroyed the belfry roof. The current boom is the work of Everard, master carpenter in Beaumont, with the help of Andry Dagnelie, thudinien7 carpenter. Jean-Baptiste Chermanne conducts a brief restoration of the exterior siding tour4 and major repairs to the college in 1754.
Hit by German artillery August 24, 1914, the damage suffered by the arrow will be permanently repaired in 1952 by Michot carpenters, father and son, Lobbes.
With a total height of 60 meters, the belfry is a square building baroque style, with a tapered base on three levels with sandstone rubble and limestone harp angles. The facing of the four faces is animated by banners and horizontal chains in limestone, increasingly spaced to sommet. These bands sometimes use reused materials such as stone fragments bosses or bearing inscriptions.
The tower is topped by a bell-arrow between four polygonal turrets. The cavetto cornice is supported by modillions in quarter-round. The upper level is illuminated four large semicircular openings lined with strip under supervision archivolt. The face is the tower bears the traces of the missing ship. Until mid-height, it has a seating area rubble grossly limited by the trace of crawling of the roof of the vessel. This part was once pierced by three superimposed arched windows, a door on the ground floor.
On the bottom of the south face are sealed the arms of Peter the Tassier and Nicolas Brussels mayors in 1638-1639, during the work undertaken on the tourn. Below are two empty niches that were to be those of St. Lambert and St. Théodard.
The west side has a timetable of John the Baptist Chermanne tailor the key to Ouverturen. Against the north side is a semicircular staircase tower covered with slate pepperpot, giving access to the second level.
In 1765, the belfry had four large bells. These were recast at the initiative of the Magistrate, that which provoked a conflict between it and the Chapter of the Collegiate who refused to share the cost. The Magistrate had to bear alone the cost of which the melting commissioned in 1763 to Levache and in 1765 and 1766 to Monaux Pierre Givet. The two bells cast by Monaux are still in the belfry. This is Paula, 1765, and Maria, melted in 1766.References:
The Palazzo Colonna is a palatial block of buildings built in part over ruins of an old Roman Serapeum, and has belonged to the prestigious Colonna family for over twenty generations.
The first part of the palace dates from the 13th century, and tradition holds that the building hosted Dante in his visit to Rome. The first documentary mention notes that the property hosted Cardinal Giovanni and Giacomo Colonna in the 13th century. It was also home to Cardinal Oddone Colonna before he ascended to the papacy as Martin V (1417–1431).
With his passing, the palace was sacked during feuds, and the main property passed into the hands of the Della Rovere family. It returned to the Colonna family when Marcantonio I Colonna married Lucrezia Gara Franciotti Della Rovere, the niece of pope Julius II. The Colonna"s alliance to the Habsburg power, likely protected the palace from looting during the Sack of Rome (1527).
Starting with Filippo Colonna (1578–1639) many changes have refurbished and create a unitary complex around a central garden. Architects including Girolamo Rainaldi and Paolo Marucelli labored on specific projects. Only in the 17th and 18th centuries were the main facades completed. Much of this design was completed by Antonio del Grande (including the grand gallery), and Girolamo Fontana (decoration of gallery). In the 18th century, the long low facade designed by Nicola Michetti with later additions by Paolo Posi with taller corner blocks (facing Piazza Apostoli) was constructed recalls earlier structures resembling a fortification.
The main gallery (completed 1703) and the masterful Colonna art collection was acquired after 1650 by both the cardinal Girolamo I Colonna and his nephew the Connestabile Lorenzo Onofrio Colonna and includes works by Lorenzo Monaco, Domenico Ghirlandaio, Palma the Elder, Salviati, Bronzino, Tintoretto, Pietro da Cortona, Annibale Carracci (painting of The Beaneater), Guercino, Francesco Albani, Muziano and Guido Reni. Ceiling frescoes by Filippo Gherardi, Giovanni Coli, Sebastiano Ricci, and Giuseppe Bartolomeo Chiari celebrate the role of Marcantonio II Colonna in the battle of Lepanto (1571). The gallery is open to the public on Saturday mornings.
The older wing of the complex known as the Princess Isabelle"s apartments, but once housing Martin V"s library and palace, contains frescoes by Pinturicchio, Antonio Tempesta, Crescenzio Onofri, Giacinto Gimignani, and Carlo Cesi. It contains a collection of landscapes and genre scenes by painters like Gaspard Dughet, Caspar Van Wittel (Vanvitelli), and Jan Brueghel the Elder.
Along with the possessions of the Doria-Pamphilij and Pallavacini-Rospigliosi families, this is one of the largest private art collections in Rome.