The Belfry of Thuin is one of 56 belfries of Belgium and France since 1999 classified world heritage of UNESCO. The tower of the old church of Saint-Théodard, built without foundations on slate rock, is undeniably medieval and must date from the time of the greatest development of the city. Specifically in the period between 1153 and 1164 during visits of Bishop Henri-Leez prince decides to erect a tower for the church, Chapter dates from this period.
The excavations undertaken on the site of the Chapter reveal the existence of three successive religious buildings. Probably a Carolingian chapel, a Romanesque church and a Gothic church built in the 16th century on the remains of the previous one. At the time of its destruction in 1811, to make room to dance, the nave had a length of 20 meters and a width of 18 meters. It stood to the east of the tower on the south side of the square of the Chapter.
The tower, considered communal property, escaped the confiscation of Church property during the French Revolution, and thus the sale and demolition. A 1662 storm completely destroyed the belfry roof. The current boom is the work of Everard, master carpenter in Beaumont, with the help of Andry Dagnelie, thudinien7 carpenter. Jean-Baptiste Chermanne conducts a brief restoration of the exterior siding tour4 and major repairs to the college in 1754.
Hit by German artillery August 24, 1914, the damage suffered by the arrow will be permanently repaired in 1952 by Michot carpenters, father and son, Lobbes.
With a total height of 60 meters, the belfry is a square building baroque style, with a tapered base on three levels with sandstone rubble and limestone harp angles. The facing of the four faces is animated by banners and horizontal chains in limestone, increasingly spaced to sommet. These bands sometimes use reused materials such as stone fragments bosses or bearing inscriptions.
The tower is topped by a bell-arrow between four polygonal turrets. The cavetto cornice is supported by modillions in quarter-round. The upper level is illuminated four large semicircular openings lined with strip under supervision archivolt. The face is the tower bears the traces of the missing ship. Until mid-height, it has a seating area rubble grossly limited by the trace of crawling of the roof of the vessel. This part was once pierced by three superimposed arched windows, a door on the ground floor.
On the bottom of the south face are sealed the arms of Peter the Tassier and Nicolas Brussels mayors in 1638-1639, during the work undertaken on the tourn. Below are two empty niches that were to be those of St. Lambert and St. Théodard.
The west side has a timetable of John the Baptist Chermanne tailor the key to Ouverturen. Against the north side is a semicircular staircase tower covered with slate pepperpot, giving access to the second level.
In 1765, the belfry had four large bells. These were recast at the initiative of the Magistrate, that which provoked a conflict between it and the Chapter of the Collegiate who refused to share the cost. The Magistrate had to bear alone the cost of which the melting commissioned in 1763 to Levache and in 1765 and 1766 to Monaux Pierre Givet. The two bells cast by Monaux are still in the belfry. This is Paula, 1765, and Maria, melted in 1766.References:
Kroměříž stands on the site of an earlier ford across the River Morava. The gardens and castle of Kroměříž are an exceptionally complete and well-preserved example of a European Baroque princely residence and its gardens and described as a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
The first residence on the site was founded by bishop Stanislas Thurzo in 1497. The building was in a Late Gothic style, with a modicum of Renaissance detail. During the Thirty Years' War, the castle was sacked by the Swedish army (1643).
It was not until 1664 that a bishop from the powerful Liechtenstein family charged architect Filiberto Lucchese with renovating the palace in a Baroque style. The chief monument of Lucchese's work in Kroměříž is the Pleasure Garden in front of the castle. Upon Lucchese's death in 1666, Giovanni Pietro Tencalla completed his work on the formal garden and had the palace rebuilt in a style reminiscent of the Turinese school to which he belonged.
After the castle was gutted by a major fire in March 1752, Bishop Hamilton commissioned two leading imperial artists, Franz Anton Maulbertsch and Josef Stern, arrived at the residence in order to decorate the halls of the palace with their works. In addition to their paintings, the palace still houses an art collection, generally considered the second finest in the country, which includes Titian's last mythological painting, The Flaying of Marsyas. The largest part of the collection was acquired by Bishop Karel in Cologne in 1673. The palace also contains an outstanding musical archive and a library of 33,000 volumes.
UNESCO lists the palace and garden among the World Heritage Sites. As the nomination dossier explains, 'the castle is a good but not outstanding example of a type of aristocratic or princely residence that has survived widely in Europe. The Pleasure Garden, by contrast, is a very rare and largely intact example of a Baroque garden'. Apart from the formal parterres there is also a less formal nineteenth-century English garden, which sustained damage during floods in 1997.
Interiors of the palace were extensively used by Miloš Forman as a stand-in for Vienna's Hofburg Imperial Palace during filming of Amadeus (1984), based on the life of Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, who actually never visited Kroměříž. The main audience chamber was also used in the film Immortal Beloved (1994), in the piano concerto scene.