The Peel of Lumphanan is a defensive structure dating back to the 13th century. The peel comprises a mound or motte, surrounded by two concentric ditches separated by a bank. On the top of the mound are the remains of a wall, and the foundations of a house. The entrance was probably located to the west. The lower half of the motte consists of a natural mound; it was heightened when the castle was built.
A motte on this site is thought to have been in existence at the time of the Battle of Lumphanan. This battle was fought nearby in 1057, between King Macbeth and the future King Malcolm III. Macbeth was killed, and Macbeth's Stone, upon which he is said to have been beheaded, is located 300 metres to the south-west.
The present mound was constructed in the 13th century by the De Lundin family, who later adopted the name Durward from their hereditary position of royal ushers or door-wards. Sir John de Melville paid homage to Edward I of England at the peel in 1296. The original ramparts may have been of turf rather than stone. The rectangular foundation is that of Halton House, which was built in the 15th century by Thomas Charteris of Kinfauns. The circular wall, originally thought to have been the curtain wall of a shell keep, was discovered through excavation in the 1970s to be of 18th-century date.
The site is under the guardianship of Historic Scotland, and is protected as a scheduled monument. It is considered to be of national importance as 'a good surviving example of an earthwork castle with water-filled outer defences.'References:
The Palazzo Colonna is a palatial block of buildings built in part over ruins of an old Roman Serapeum, and has belonged to the prestigious Colonna family for over twenty generations.
The first part of the palace dates from the 13th century, and tradition holds that the building hosted Dante in his visit to Rome. The first documentary mention notes that the property hosted Cardinal Giovanni and Giacomo Colonna in the 13th century. It was also home to Cardinal Oddone Colonna before he ascended to the papacy as Martin V (1417–1431).
With his passing, the palace was sacked during feuds, and the main property passed into the hands of the Della Rovere family. It returned to the Colonna family when Marcantonio I Colonna married Lucrezia Gara Franciotti Della Rovere, the niece of pope Julius II. The Colonna"s alliance to the Habsburg power, likely protected the palace from looting during the Sack of Rome (1527).
Starting with Filippo Colonna (1578–1639) many changes have refurbished and create a unitary complex around a central garden. Architects including Girolamo Rainaldi and Paolo Marucelli labored on specific projects. Only in the 17th and 18th centuries were the main facades completed. Much of this design was completed by Antonio del Grande (including the grand gallery), and Girolamo Fontana (decoration of gallery). In the 18th century, the long low facade designed by Nicola Michetti with later additions by Paolo Posi with taller corner blocks (facing Piazza Apostoli) was constructed recalls earlier structures resembling a fortification.
The main gallery (completed 1703) and the masterful Colonna art collection was acquired after 1650 by both the cardinal Girolamo I Colonna and his nephew the Connestabile Lorenzo Onofrio Colonna and includes works by Lorenzo Monaco, Domenico Ghirlandaio, Palma the Elder, Salviati, Bronzino, Tintoretto, Pietro da Cortona, Annibale Carracci (painting of The Beaneater), Guercino, Francesco Albani, Muziano and Guido Reni. Ceiling frescoes by Filippo Gherardi, Giovanni Coli, Sebastiano Ricci, and Giuseppe Bartolomeo Chiari celebrate the role of Marcantonio II Colonna in the battle of Lepanto (1571). The gallery is open to the public on Saturday mornings.
The older wing of the complex known as the Princess Isabelle"s apartments, but once housing Martin V"s library and palace, contains frescoes by Pinturicchio, Antonio Tempesta, Crescenzio Onofri, Giacinto Gimignani, and Carlo Cesi. It contains a collection of landscapes and genre scenes by painters like Gaspard Dughet, Caspar Van Wittel (Vanvitelli), and Jan Brueghel the Elder.
Along with the possessions of the Doria-Pamphilij and Pallavacini-Rospigliosi families, this is one of the largest private art collections in Rome.