Krupka castle was probably founded by John of Bohemia sometime around the year 1320 when the king wanted to boost fortifications in the border region with Saxony. King John donated the castle, together with the town of Krupka, the tin mines and Trmice in 1330 to the Meissen noble Thimoteus (Těma) of Kolditz. Thimoteus subsequently purchased the Kirchlice fort and in 1335 made a contract with the Lords of Bergau to adjust the border between the Krupka and Geisberg (Supí hora) estates. Thimoteus was an important figure in King John’s court, accompanying him with other noblemen in his tours of Europe. The Kolditz family held Krupka, with an eight-year pause, until 1504, a total of 166 years.
The castle was founded on a high rocky promontory accessed from the north. A channel was cut at the section where the promontory was lowest to reduce the level further. Above this, the original castle was built with a roughly rectangular north-south facing layout, approximately 20 x 55 m in size. Its dominating square tower (palace) was both residential and defensive in nature, stood in the north-western corner of the castle walls and likely comprised three storeys (its form has not been preserved). Of the rectangular tower in the eastern castle walls, which guarded the path through the town below, only the ground floor with its Gothic pointed entrance remains.
At the end of the 15th century, grand fortifications were built which significantly extended the construction. An entrance alley from the western wall and along the building was probably constructed for castle workers, and two semicircle bastions were also built. In 1695, a house was built onto the first of these in 1695 for the noble upper authority. Although in the 17th century the castle itself no longer fulfilled its defensive and residential roles and its remains fell into disrepair, life on the promontory continued. The Krupka estate’s authorities and upper administration were based in the official house.
The Romantic era of the 19th century rediscovered the derelict castle, with the whole area and surroundings being repaired and opened to the public, and the official house turned into a restaurant. It was visitors to the Teplice spas in particular who used the site for trips and relaxation, and they admired the roses in the manor gardens. More than 100 varieties grew there, and this is why the castle began to be known as the Rose Castle (Růžový hrad – Rosenburg). A constant problem, however, was the crumbling castle walls and how to secure them.References:
Heidelberg Castle is a famous ruin and one of the the most important Renaissance structures north of the Alps. The rich and eventful history of Heidelberg Palace began when the counts palatine of the Rhine, – later prince electors – established their residence at Heidelberg. The earliest castle structure was built before 1214 and later expanded into two castles circa 1294; however, in 1537, a lightning-bolt destroyed the upper castle. Until the Thirty Years’ War, Heidelberg Palace boasted one of the most notable ensembles of buildings in the Holy Roman Empire. The present structures had been expanded by 1650, before damage by later wars and fires. In 1764, another lightning-bolt caused a fire which destroyed some rebuilt sections.
The 19th century brought a new wave of admiration: a sight both terrible and beautiful, the ruins epitomised the spirit of the Romantic movement. Heidelberg Palace was elevated to a national monument. The imposing edifice and its famous garden, the Hortus Palatinus, became shrouded in myth. The garden, the last work commissioned by the prince electors, was never completed. Some remaining landscaped terraces and other vestiges hint at the awe-inspiring scale of this ambitious project. In the 17th century, it was celebrated as the “eighth wonder of the world”. While time has taken its toll, Heidelberg Palace’s fame lives on to this day.
Heidelberg Castle is located 80 metres up the northern part of the Königstuhl hillside, and thereby dominates the view of the old downtown. Set against the deep green forests on the north flank of Königstuhl hill, the red sandstone ruins tower majestically over the Neckar valley.