The Oldřich Oak, also known as the Prince Oldřich Oak, is a Pedunculate Oak (Quercus robur) tree located in the market town of Peruc. It is estimated to be about 1,000 years old. The tree has a height of 30 m and a trunk circumference of 810 cm.
The tree derives its name from a legend, set in the 11th century, involving Oldřich of Bohemia and Božena, the mother of his only son. According to the legend, Oldřich set out on a hunt and travelled to Peruc. There, he spied a beautiful peasant girl, Božena, by a well (known today as Božena's spring) and was immediately entranced by her. Oldřich abandoned his hunt and took Božena back to Prague, and she eventually gave birth to his son Bretislaus. In the legend, Oldřich's first meeting with Božena took place in sight of the Oldřich Oak.
The Oldřich Oak is mentioned in the Chronicle of Dalimil.References:
The Externsteine (Extern stones) is a distinctive sandstone rock formation located in the Teutoburg Forest, near the town of Horn-Bad Meinberg. The formation is a tor consisting of several tall, narrow columns of rock which rise abruptly from the surrounding wooded hills. Archaeological excavations have yielded some Upper Paleolithic stone tools dating to about 10,700 BC from 9,600 BC.
In a popular tradition going back to an idea proposed to Hermann Hamelmann in 1564, the Externsteine are identified as a sacred site of the pagan Saxons, and the location of the Irminsul (sacral pillar-like object in German paganism) idol reportedly destroyed by Charlemagne; there is however no archaeological evidence that would confirm the site's use during the relevant period.
The stones were used as the site of a hermitage in the Middle Ages, and by at least the high medieval period were the site of a Christian chapel. The Externsteine relief is a medieval depiction of the Descent from the Cross. It remains controversial whether the site was already used for Christian worship in the 8th to early 10th centuries.
The Externsteine gained prominence when Völkisch and nationalistic scholars took an interest in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. This interest peaked under the Nazi regime, when the Externsteine became a focus of nazi propaganda. Today, they remain a popular tourist destination and also continue to attract Neo-Pagans and Neo-Nazis.