Hodegetria Monastery

Phaistos, Greece

Hodegetria Monastery is one of the oldest and grandest monasteries on Crete, with its history closely linked to that of small monasteries and hermitages in the Asteroussia region.

It is a citadel-type monastery, with a large fortified tower in its courtyard that protected the monks from pirates arriving by sea in the south. According to tradition, this tower was initially built by Nikiforos Fokas in 961 AD. However, the present-day tower is more recent, built at the site of the first one during the era of Venetian rule, but retaining many of its Byzantine characteristics.

The two-aisled church at the centre of the courtyard is dedicated to the Virgin Mary and the Holy Apostles.

Several additions have been made to the initial structure and its interior includes murals, portable icons by renowned painters, an artful chancel screen and important holy vestments. 

During the era of Ottoman rule, the monastery served as the seat and refuge of revolutionaries and its history has been linked with Xopateras, a dynamic monk who fought the Ottomans laying siege to the Monastery on his own. After the Ottomans killed him, they set fire to the tower and destroyed the monastery.

The monastery includes wonderful 15th century icons by the painter Angelos, such as the Life-giving Fontand Saint Fanourios, while the murals of the chapels and nearby churches, which are also worthy of note, were painted during various eras.

There is a small museum with an old oil press, a stone oven, old farming tools, a wine press and other utensils.

References:

Comments

Your name

Website (optional)



Details

Founded: 15th century
Category: Religious sites in Greece

Rating

4/5 (based on Google user reviews)

User Reviews

Hachmed Rachid (19 months ago)
Hodegon Manastırı (veya Panaghia Hodegetria), Ayasofya'nın doğusunda, Mangana Mahallesi'nde, Akropolis'in doğu yamacında bulunuyordu. Hacıgayı (kutsal baharı) ve Bakire Hodegetria'nın ünlü simgesi Konstantinopolis'te önemli bir hac bölgesi haline getirmiştir. Adı, Hodegon (“kılavuzlar”), görünüşte kör hacıları yönlendiren keşişlerden, görmeyi yeniden canlandırabilen mucizevi bir yay (hagiasma) türetmiştir. Daha sonraki bir geleneğe göre, Pulcheria, kısmen önemli kalıntıları barındırmak için Hodegon'u (Blachernai ve Chalkoprateia ile birlikte) kurdu. Bununla birlikte, büyük olasılıkla Michael III tarafından yaptırılmış, ancak daha önce bir döneme dayanan hagiasma. Daha sonra geleneğe göre Aziz Luke tarafından boyanmış Bakire Hodegetria'nın Simgesini barındırıyordu. Bu meşhur simge, 11. yüzyıla kadar kaydedilmemişken, louma'sı (ritüel banyosu) 12. yüzyıla kadar da bahsedilmiyor. Yine de Ortodoksluk Zaferi'ni gören Michael III'ün saltanatı, yaratılışları için çok uygun bir an gibi görünüyor. Palaiologan döneminde, scriptorium gelişti ve lüks el yazmaları üretti. Palaiologan imparatorları manastırla yakından ilişkiliydi ve sık sık ziyaret ettiler. Mesela Andronikos III, 1341'de orada öldü. Geç Bizans döneminde, Hodegetria'nın simgesi her gün Salı günü tedavi edilmek isteyen büyük kalabalığın katıldığı sokaklarda alaylarla taşındı. Böylece, Hodegon'daki hagiasma ikonu tarafından gölgede bırakıldı, tıpkı Blachernai'deki hagiazma benzer şekilde daha ünlü ikonu tarafından tutuluyordu. 13. ve 14. yüzyılın sonlarında manastır, Antakya Patrikhanesine bir metok olarak verildi ve Konstantinopolis'i ziyaret eden Suriyeli rahipler için bir konut olarak kullanıldı. İstanbul işgali sırasında Topkapı'da kamp yapan Fransız ordusu, 1922-23 yıllarında bölgeyi kazdı ve Mangana Mahallesi'nde, Hodegon olarak tanımlanan kalıntılar da dahil olmak üzere çeşitli yapıların kalıntılarını aydınlattı. Sonuçlar daha sonra Demangel ve Mamboury tarafından yayınlanmasına rağmen, tüm bölgeyi kazmaya yetecek kadar zaman yoktu. Geçici Hodegon olarak keşfedilen kalıntılar bir hekzakon içerir. Her ne kadar bilim adamları kimlikleri konusunda bölünmüş olsalar da, Hodegon'un topografik açıklamaları, Hodegon Manastırı'nın bu kalıntıların yakınında bulunduğunu göstermektedir. Heksakonch daha sonra Hodegon'un hagiası veya vaftizhanesi olarak tanımlandı. Aynı zamanda heksakondan tepenin aşağısındaki küçük bir odanın hagiasma olması da mümkündür.
Powered by Google

Featured Historic Landmarks, Sites & Buildings

Historic Site of the week

Derbent Fortress

Derbent is the southernmost city in Russia, occupying the narrow gateway between the Caspian Sea and the Caucasus Mountains connecting the Eurasian steppes to the north and the Iranian Plateau to the south. Derbent claims to be the oldest city in Russia with historical documentation dating to the 8th century BCE. Due to its strategic location, over the course of history, the city changed ownership many times, particularly among the Persian, Arab, Mongol, Timurid, Shirvan and Iranian kingdoms.

Derbent has archaeological structures over 5,000 years old. As a result of this geographic peculiarity, the city developed between two walls, stretching from the mountains to the sea. These fortifications were continuously employed for a millennium and a half, longer than any other extant fortress in the world.

A traditionally and historically Iranian city, the first intensive settlement in the Derbent area dates from the 8th century BC. The site was intermittently controlled by the Persian monarchs, starting from the 6th century BC. Until the 4th century AD, it was part of Caucasian Albania which was a satrap of the Achaemenid Persian Empire. In the 5th century Derbent functioned as a border fortress and the seat of Sassanid Persians. Because of its strategic position on the northern branch of the Silk Route, the fortress was contested by the Khazars in the course of the Khazar-Arab Wars. In 654, Derbent was captured by the Arabs.

The Sassanid fortress does not exist any more, as the famous Derbent fortress as it stands today was built from the 12th century onward. Derbent became a strong military outpost and harbour of the Sassanid empire. During the 5th and 6th centuries, Derbent also became an important center for spreading the Christian faith in the Caucasus.

The site continued to be of great strategic importance until the 19th century. Today the fortifications consist of two parallel defence walls and Naryn-Kala Citadel. The walls are 3.6km long, stretching from the sea up to the mountains. They were built from stone and had 73 defence towers. 9 out of the 14 original gates remain.

In Naryn-Kala Citadel most of the old buildings, including a palace and a church, are now in ruins. It also holds baths and one of the oldest mosques in the former USSR.

In 2003, UNESCO included the old part of Derbent with traditional buildings in the World Heritage List.