Hodegetria Monastery

Phaistos, Greece

Hodegetria Monastery is one of the oldest and grandest monasteries on Crete, with its history closely linked to that of small monasteries and hermitages in the Asteroussia region.

It is a citadel-type monastery, with a large fortified tower in its courtyard that protected the monks from pirates arriving by sea in the south. According to tradition, this tower was initially built by Nikiforos Fokas in 961 AD. However, the present-day tower is more recent, built at the site of the first one during the era of Venetian rule, but retaining many of its Byzantine characteristics.

The two-aisled church at the centre of the courtyard is dedicated to the Virgin Mary and the Holy Apostles.

Several additions have been made to the initial structure and its interior includes murals, portable icons by renowned painters, an artful chancel screen and important holy vestments. 

During the era of Ottoman rule, the monastery served as the seat and refuge of revolutionaries and its history has been linked with Xopateras, a dynamic monk who fought the Ottomans laying siege to the Monastery on his own. After the Ottomans killed him, they set fire to the tower and destroyed the monastery.

The monastery includes wonderful 15th century icons by the painter Angelos, such as the Life-giving Fontand Saint Fanourios, while the murals of the chapels and nearby churches, which are also worthy of note, were painted during various eras.

There is a small museum with an old oil press, a stone oven, old farming tools, a wine press and other utensils.

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Details

Founded: 15th century
Category: Religious sites in Greece

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User Reviews

Hachmed Rachid (2 years ago)
Hodegon Manastırı (veya Panaghia Hodegetria), Ayasofya'nın doğusunda, Mangana Mahallesi'nde, Akropolis'in doğu yamacında bulunuyordu. Hacıgayı (kutsal baharı) ve Bakire Hodegetria'nın ünlü simgesi Konstantinopolis'te önemli bir hac bölgesi haline getirmiştir. Adı, Hodegon (“kılavuzlar”), görünüşte kör hacıları yönlendiren keşişlerden, görmeyi yeniden canlandırabilen mucizevi bir yay (hagiasma) türetmiştir. Daha sonraki bir geleneğe göre, Pulcheria, kısmen önemli kalıntıları barındırmak için Hodegon'u (Blachernai ve Chalkoprateia ile birlikte) kurdu. Bununla birlikte, büyük olasılıkla Michael III tarafından yaptırılmış, ancak daha önce bir döneme dayanan hagiasma. Daha sonra geleneğe göre Aziz Luke tarafından boyanmış Bakire Hodegetria'nın Simgesini barındırıyordu. Bu meşhur simge, 11. yüzyıla kadar kaydedilmemişken, louma'sı (ritüel banyosu) 12. yüzyıla kadar da bahsedilmiyor. Yine de Ortodoksluk Zaferi'ni gören Michael III'ün saltanatı, yaratılışları için çok uygun bir an gibi görünüyor. Palaiologan döneminde, scriptorium gelişti ve lüks el yazmaları üretti. Palaiologan imparatorları manastırla yakından ilişkiliydi ve sık sık ziyaret ettiler. Mesela Andronikos III, 1341'de orada öldü. Geç Bizans döneminde, Hodegetria'nın simgesi her gün Salı günü tedavi edilmek isteyen büyük kalabalığın katıldığı sokaklarda alaylarla taşındı. Böylece, Hodegon'daki hagiasma ikonu tarafından gölgede bırakıldı, tıpkı Blachernai'deki hagiazma benzer şekilde daha ünlü ikonu tarafından tutuluyordu. 13. ve 14. yüzyılın sonlarında manastır, Antakya Patrikhanesine bir metok olarak verildi ve Konstantinopolis'i ziyaret eden Suriyeli rahipler için bir konut olarak kullanıldı. İstanbul işgali sırasında Topkapı'da kamp yapan Fransız ordusu, 1922-23 yıllarında bölgeyi kazdı ve Mangana Mahallesi'nde, Hodegon olarak tanımlanan kalıntılar da dahil olmak üzere çeşitli yapıların kalıntılarını aydınlattı. Sonuçlar daha sonra Demangel ve Mamboury tarafından yayınlanmasına rağmen, tüm bölgeyi kazmaya yetecek kadar zaman yoktu. Geçici Hodegon olarak keşfedilen kalıntılar bir hekzakon içerir. Her ne kadar bilim adamları kimlikleri konusunda bölünmüş olsalar da, Hodegon'un topografik açıklamaları, Hodegon Manastırı'nın bu kalıntıların yakınında bulunduğunu göstermektedir. Heksakonch daha sonra Hodegon'un hagiası veya vaftizhanesi olarak tanımlandı. Aynı zamanda heksakondan tepenin aşağısındaki küçük bir odanın hagiasma olması da mümkündür.
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Early modern times through Thirty Years' War

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17th through 19th centuries

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