Gaussig House is a manor house in Palladian style located approximately 6 km southwest from Bautzen. Extending over some 75 acres, nestled in beautiful natural surroundings and bordered by the Grosse Picho hill to the south, lies one of Upper Lusatia’s largest landscape parks. Gaussig House, the orangery, the church and vicarage, and the estate form the centre of Gaussig village.
A manor house at Gaussig was first mentioned in 1245. Major General and Colonel Rudolph von Neitschütz received Gaussig as a fief in 1696, and around 1700 he and his wife, Ursula, had Gaussig House built in the Baroque style.
From 1747 to 1750, the new owner, Count Heinrich von Brühl, had a Baroque garden landscaped according to plans by master builder Johann Christoph Knöffel. The round pavilion and the canal are the two surviving features of this garden.
After Count von Brühl, Count Hermann Carl von Keyserlingk, the Russian ambassador to the court of Saxony, took over Gaussig. In 1800 Countess Henriette von Schall-Riaucour, probably with assistance from master builder Christian Friedrich Schuricht and Lord Findlater, had the park landscaped in the design that survives to this day. Schuricht redesigned Gaussig House in the neo-classical Palladian style, with plaster imitation ashlar masonry on the projections, and lions’ heads and tapestries in the arch bays. The entrance area was also redesigned during this period (entrance hall with Ionic columns), as was the garden room, with herms supporting the pediment over the side doors.
The cemetery was added in 1880 and the chapel in 1894. In 1907 the extension for the library on the south side of the house was completed and several rooms were redesigned. After the property was expropriated in 1945, it was used by the Red Army and later by the CDU. From 1950 to 1992 the park was managed by the Technische Universität Dresden, which used Gaussig House as a recreation venue for academic staff and for conferences.
In 2005 Andreas Graf von Brühl-Pohl and his family took over ownership of Gaussig House and Park. The house was carefully renovated and restored to its former glory over the course of three years, and the building now serves both as the von Brühl-Pohl family’s residence and as a luxurious hotel.References:
The Palazzo Colonna is a palatial block of buildings built in part over ruins of an old Roman Serapeum, and has belonged to the prestigious Colonna family for over twenty generations.
The first part of the palace dates from the 13th century, and tradition holds that the building hosted Dante in his visit to Rome. The first documentary mention notes that the property hosted Cardinal Giovanni and Giacomo Colonna in the 13th century. It was also home to Cardinal Oddone Colonna before he ascended to the papacy as Martin V (1417–1431).
With his passing, the palace was sacked during feuds, and the main property passed into the hands of the Della Rovere family. It returned to the Colonna family when Marcantonio I Colonna married Lucrezia Gara Franciotti Della Rovere, the niece of pope Julius II. The Colonna"s alliance to the Habsburg power, likely protected the palace from looting during the Sack of Rome (1527).
Starting with Filippo Colonna (1578–1639) many changes have refurbished and create a unitary complex around a central garden. Architects including Girolamo Rainaldi and Paolo Marucelli labored on specific projects. Only in the 17th and 18th centuries were the main facades completed. Much of this design was completed by Antonio del Grande (including the grand gallery), and Girolamo Fontana (decoration of gallery). In the 18th century, the long low facade designed by Nicola Michetti with later additions by Paolo Posi with taller corner blocks (facing Piazza Apostoli) was constructed recalls earlier structures resembling a fortification.
The main gallery (completed 1703) and the masterful Colonna art collection was acquired after 1650 by both the cardinal Girolamo I Colonna and his nephew the Connestabile Lorenzo Onofrio Colonna and includes works by Lorenzo Monaco, Domenico Ghirlandaio, Palma the Elder, Salviati, Bronzino, Tintoretto, Pietro da Cortona, Annibale Carracci (painting of The Beaneater), Guercino, Francesco Albani, Muziano and Guido Reni. Ceiling frescoes by Filippo Gherardi, Giovanni Coli, Sebastiano Ricci, and Giuseppe Bartolomeo Chiari celebrate the role of Marcantonio II Colonna in the battle of Lepanto (1571). The gallery is open to the public on Saturday mornings.
The older wing of the complex known as the Princess Isabelle"s apartments, but once housing Martin V"s library and palace, contains frescoes by Pinturicchio, Antonio Tempesta, Crescenzio Onofri, Giacinto Gimignani, and Carlo Cesi. It contains a collection of landscapes and genre scenes by painters like Gaspard Dughet, Caspar Van Wittel (Vanvitelli), and Jan Brueghel the Elder.
Along with the possessions of the Doria-Pamphilij and Pallavacini-Rospigliosi families, this is one of the largest private art collections in Rome.