Gaussig House is a manor house in Palladian style located approximately 6 km southwest from Bautzen. Extending over some 75 acres, nestled in beautiful natural surroundings and bordered by the Grosse Picho hill to the south, lies one of Upper Lusatia’s largest landscape parks. Gaussig House, the orangery, the church and vicarage, and the estate form the centre of Gaussig village.
A manor house at Gaussig was first mentioned in 1245. Major General and Colonel Rudolph von Neitschütz received Gaussig as a fief in 1696, and around 1700 he and his wife, Ursula, had Gaussig House built in the Baroque style.
From 1747 to 1750, the new owner, Count Heinrich von Brühl, had a Baroque garden landscaped according to plans by master builder Johann Christoph Knöffel. The round pavilion and the canal are the two surviving features of this garden.
After Count von Brühl, Count Hermann Carl von Keyserlingk, the Russian ambassador to the court of Saxony, took over Gaussig. In 1800 Countess Henriette von Schall-Riaucour, probably with assistance from master builder Christian Friedrich Schuricht and Lord Findlater, had the park landscaped in the design that survives to this day. Schuricht redesigned Gaussig House in the neo-classical Palladian style, with plaster imitation ashlar masonry on the projections, and lions’ heads and tapestries in the arch bays. The entrance area was also redesigned during this period (entrance hall with Ionic columns), as was the garden room, with herms supporting the pediment over the side doors.
The cemetery was added in 1880 and the chapel in 1894. In 1907 the extension for the library on the south side of the house was completed and several rooms were redesigned. After the property was expropriated in 1945, it was used by the Red Army and later by the CDU. From 1950 to 1992 the park was managed by the Technische Universität Dresden, which used Gaussig House as a recreation venue for academic staff and for conferences.
In 2005 Andreas Graf von Brühl-Pohl and his family took over ownership of Gaussig House and Park. The house was carefully renovated and restored to its former glory over the course of three years, and the building now serves both as the von Brühl-Pohl family’s residence and as a luxurious hotel.References:
The two-tiered Roman amphitheatre is probably the most prominent tourist attraction in the city of Arles, which thrived in Roman times. Built in 90 AD, the amphitheatre was capable of seating over 20,000 spectators, and was built to provide entertainment in the form of chariot races and bloody hand-to-hand battles. Today, it draws large crowds for bullfighting as well as plays and concerts in summer.
The building measures 136 m in length and 109 m wide, and features 120 arches. It has an oval arena surrounded by terraces, arcades on two levels (60 in all), bleachers, a system of galleries, drainage system in many corridors of access and staircases for a quick exit from the crowd. It was obviously inspired by the Colosseum in Rome (in 72-80), being built slightly later (in 90).
With the fall of the Empire in the 5th century, the amphitheatre became a shelter for the population and was transformed into a fortress with four towers (the southern tower is not restored). The structure encircled more than 200 houses, becoming a real town, with its public square built in the centre of the arena and two chapels, one in the centre of the building, and another one at the base of the west tower.
This new residential role continued until the late 18th century, and in 1825 through the initiative of the writer Prosper Mérimée, the change to national historical monument began. In 1826, expropriation began of the houses built within the building, which ended by 1830 when the first event was organized in the arena - a race of the bulls to celebrate the taking of Algiers.
Arles Amphitheatre is listed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site, together with other Roman buildings of the city, as part of the Arles, Roman and Romanesque Monuments group.