Mesocco Castle ruins are among the largest in the canton. Originally the seat of the noble family von Sax, from the 12th century until 1480 it was held by the Freiherr of Misox/Mesocco. From 1480 until 1549 it was held by the Trivulzio family.
A small fortified church, the Church of S. Carpoforo, was built on the hill top around the 7th century as a refuge castle for the surrounding villages. Around 1000, the fortifications around the church began gradually expanding and a bell tower was added to the church. A bergfried was added between 1150 and 1200, changing the shape and location of the walls. By the 12th century the fortified church and occasionally used fortifications had expanded into a permanently occupied castle with a nobleman who ruled over the nearby valley. By 1219 it was mentioned as Mesocco Castle. In the 13th century the castle was expanded again. A ring wall now encircled the entire hill top and a large residential wing was added to the tower. Around 1400 the residential wing was expanded and now formed an inner castle with the tower.
The first ruler of the castle was the local Baron of Sax/Misox, who by the 13th century ruled over the entire Val Mesolcina and controlled a number of castles. By the end of the century, the baron's power crossed over the San Bernardino Pass and by the 14th century they reached the peak of their power. Baron Albert von Sax-Misox was a founding member of the Grey League and the family's future looked bright. However, Albert's murder in 1406 led to the gradual decline of the family. In 1480 they sold Mesocco castle and its associated demesne to General Giacomo Trivulzio.
Trivulzio had been sent by Milan to acquire the castle and strengthen their claims in the strategic valley. After he paid a deposit on the castle and occupied it, he refused the pay the remainder of the agreed upon price of 16,000 Rheingulden. In 1483 the Baron of Sax and local forces besieged the castle in an unsuccessful attempt to force Trivulzio to pay. However, over the following years, he broke with Milan and paid the remaining money to improve local relations. In 1490 Trivulzio expanded and strengthened the castle and sited cannons on the walls.
In 1496 he signed a treaty with the Grey League to support them with weapons and supplies in the event of a war, which he was called to do during the Swabian War and Musso War. Despite the extensive fortifications, in 1526 the newly formed Three Leagues ordered the castle abandoned and moved the administrative center of the valley to Palast Trivulzio in Roveredo.
The castle fell into ruin until 1925-26 when it was excavated and reinforced. A further project in 1986-90 restored a polygonal tower and northern and north-western walls.
The castle sprawls over the entire top of a small mountain. The walls form an irregular pentagon with five towers. The interior of the castle was home to the count's family and his soldiers as well as armories, a foundry, a bakery, a dairy, a cistern and a charnel house. The church of S. Carpoforo also stood inside the castle walls. At the foot of the castle is the Church of Santa Maria al Castello. The church was first mentioned in 1219. It houses several frescoes from the workshop of Seregnesi from the mid-15th century.References:
The first historical record of Lednice locality dates from 1222. At that time there stood a Gothic fort with courtyard, which was lent by Czech King Václav I to Austrian nobleman Sigfried Sirotek in 1249.
At the end of the 13th century the Liechtensteins, originally from Styria, became holders of all of Lednice and of nearby Mikulov. They gradually acquired land on both sides of the Moravian-Austrian border. Members of the family most often found fame in military service, during the Renaissance they expanded their estates through economic activity. From the middle of the 15th century members of the family occupied the highest offices in the land. However, the family’s position in Moravia really changed under the brothers Karel, Maximilian, and Gundakar of Liechtenstein. Through marriage Karel and Maximilian acquired the great wealth of the old Moravian dynasty of the Černohorskýs of Boskovice. At that time the brothers, like their father and grandfather, were Lutheran, but they soon converted to Catholicism, thus preparing the ground for their rise in politics. Particularly Karel, who served at the court of Emperor Rudolf II, became hetman of Moravia in 1608, and was later raised to princely status by King Matyas II and awarded the Duchy of Opava.
During the revolt of the Czech nobility he stood on the side of the Habsburgs, and took part in the Battle of White Mountain. After the uprising was defeated in 1620 he systematically acquired property confiscated from some of the rebels, and the Liechtensteins became the wealthiest family in Moravia, rising in status above the Žerotíns. Their enormous land holdings brought them great profits, and eventually allowed them to carry out their grandious building projects here in Lednice.
In the 16th century it was probably Hartmann II of Liechtenstein who had the old medieval water castle torn down and replaced with a Renaissance chateau. At the end of the 17th century the chateau was torn down and a Baroque palace was built, with an extensive formal garden, and a massive riding hall designed by Johann Bernard Fischer von Erlach that still stands in almost unaltered form.
In the mid-18th century the chateau was again renovated, and in 1815 its front tracts that had been part of the Baroque chateau were removed.
The chateau as it looks today dates from 1846-1858, when Prince Alois II decided that Vienna was not suitable for entertaining in the summer, and had Lednice rebuilt into a summer palace in the spirit of English Gothic. The hall on the ground floor would serve to entertain the European aristocracy at sumptuous banquets, and was furnished with carved wood ceilings, wooden panelling, and select furniture, surpassing anything of its kind in Europe.