Towards the 11th century Cavriana became one of the properties of Canossa and it is in this period that the first fortification was probably built. Subsequently to the Canossa the ownership of the village passes to the free Municipality of Mantua that, to defend the boundaries from the growing power of the Municipality of Verona, grants it to the family of the Riva with defensive tasks but, in the second half of the XIII century, they are supplanted by the emergent family of the Bonacolsi, who in turn, in 1328, were replaced by the Gonzagas with the election to Imperial Vicar of Luigi Gonzaga by the Emperor Ludwig IV the Bavaro. With the increase in danger due to the neighboring Visconti, the castle is reinforced with high walls that surround the entire village, while the fortress has at that time four towers at the corners; in the second half of the 14th century clashes with the Visconti are frequent and in 1383 he moved to Cavriana Francesco I Gonzaga to escape the plague and died here in 1407.
Between 1458 and 1461 the fortress was strengthened and modified to a design by Giovanni da Padova to adapt to new war techniques and the advent of cannons, it is also surrounded by a system of ditches. In 1501 Francesco II Gonzaga, at the time military commander in the pay of the Serenissima, armed the fortress of artillery.
In the first decades of the 17th century the Rocca Castello di Cavriana appears to be the largest of the state, is then attacked and occupied with partial demolition, so that in a census of the defensive structures of 1650 the castle is decayed. In 1708 the Gonzagas fall and the Austrians are not interested in rebuilding the fortification, so much so that in 1771 they ordered the demolition.References:
The famous Italian Medici family have given two queens to France: Catherine, the spouse of Henry II, and Marie, widow of Henry IV, who built the current Luxembourg palace. Maria di Medici had never been happy at the Louvre, still semi-medieval, where the fickle king, did not hesitate to receive his mistresses. The death of Henry IV, assassinated in 1610, left the way open for Marie's project. When she became regent, she was able to give special attention to the construction of an imposing modern residence that would be reminiscent of the Palazzo Pitti and the Boboli Gardens in Florence, where she grew up. The development of the 25-hectare park, which was to serve as a jewel-case for the palace, began immediately.
The architect, Salomon de Brosse, began the work in 1615. Only 16 years later was the palace was completed. Palace of Luxembourg affords a transition between the Renaissance and the Classical period.
In 1750, the Director of the King's Buildings installed in the wing the first public art-gallery in France, in which French and foreign canvases of the royal collections are shown. The Count of Provence and future Louis XVIII, who was living in Petit Luxembourg, had this gallery closed in 1780: leaving to emigrate, he fled from the palace in June 1791.
During the French Revolution the palace was first abandoned and then moved as a national prison. After that it was the seat of the French Directory, and in 1799, the home of the Sénat conservateur and the first residence of Napoleon Bonaparte, as First Consul of the French Republic. The old apartments of Maria di Medici were altered. The floor, which the 80 senators only occupied in 1804, was built in the middle of the present Conference Hall.
Beginning in 1835 the architect Alphonse de Gisors added a new garden wing parallel to the old corps de logis, replicating the look of the original 17th-century facade so precisely that it is difficult to distinguish at first glance the old from the new. The new senate chamber was located in what would have been the courtyard area in-between.
The new wing included a library (bibliothèque) with a cycle of paintings (1845–1847) by Eugène Delacroix. In the 1850s, at the request of Emperor Napoleon III, Gisors created the highly decorated Salle des Conférences, which influenced the nature of subsequent official interiors of the Second Empire, including those of the Palais Garnier.
During the German occupation of Paris (1940–1944), Hermann Göring took over the palace as the headquarters of the Luftwaffe in France, taking for himself a sumptuous suite of rooms to accommodate his visits to the French capital. Since 1958 the Luxembourg palace has been the seat of the French Senate of the Fifth Republic.