Eufemio Castle is mentioned in several historical sources, the oldest dating back to the first decades of the 12th century. It was described as an important place for the old town, thanks to its strategic position. In the 13th century, the importance of the Eufemio Castle grew considerably, as it was one of the main ones imperial castles of the reign of Frederick II of Swabia, whose guards guarded him during the battle against Muslims, who resided near the historic Segesta.
In the following centuries, the Eufemio Castle was inhabited by the various feudal lords who took turns at the command of Calatafimi Segesta, up to the 19th century, where it was used as prigione. Eufemio Castle remained in operation until 1868, only to be totally abandoned to itself, causing its state of degradation which, over time, saw the collapse of many of its parts. Today it is partially restored.
The Eufemio Castle would have been equipped with three towers, two still visible today in its remains, while there is no trace of the third, a fate shared also with the walls who would have wrapped it up to improve its defense system. Once you entered the Eufemio Castle, on the left there would have been the prisons, some walls of which have still been left engravings made, in all probability, by the prisoners themselves while serving their penalties. The Eufemio Castle would also have had a upper floor, which would have been used as a residence for the reigning feudal family.References:
Roman Walls of Lugo are an exceptional architectural, archaeological and constructive legacy of Roman engineering, dating from the 3rd and 4th centuries AD. The Walls are built of internal and external stone facings of slate with some granite, with a core filling of a conglomerate of slate slabs and worked stone pieces from Roman buildings, interlocked with lime mortar.
Their total length of 2117 m in the shape of an oblong rectangle occupies an area of 1.68 ha. Their height varies between 8 and 10 m, with a width of 4.2 m, reaching 7 m in some specific points. The walls still contain 85 external towers, 10 gates (five of which are original and five that were opened in modern times), four staircases and two ramps providing access to the walkway along the top of the walls, one of which is internal and the other external. Each tower contained access stairs leading from the intervallum to the wall walk of town wall, of which a total of 21 have been discovered to date.
The defences of Lugo are the most complete and best preserved example of Roman military architecture in the Western Roman Empire.
Despite the renovation work carried out, the walls conserve their original layout and the construction features associated with their defensive purpose, with walls, battlements, towers, fortifications, both modern and original gates and stairways, and a moat.
Since they were built, the walls have defined the layout and growth of the city, which was declared a Historical-Artistic Ensemble in 1973, forming a part of it and becoming an emblematic structure that can be freely accessed to walk along. The local inhabitants and visitors alike have used them as an area for enjoyment and as a part of urban life for centuries.
The fortifications were added to UNESCO"s World Heritage List in late 2000 and are a popular tourist attraction.