Monte Adranone is a mountain rising 899 metres above sea level in the north of the comune of Sambuca di Sicilia. At the summit of the mountain are the remains of the ancient city of Adranon, one of the more important archaeological sites in Sicily.
Adranon was settled at the beginning of the 5th century BC, destroyed during the 3rd century BC, according to data from archaeological excavations. The city is distinct from the city of the same name in eastern Sicily and is possibly mentioned by Diodorus Siculus in his account of the First Punic War. The city, reburied after the archaeological excavations, extended over rough, undulating terrain which becomes a terrace towards the southwest. In the area around the entrance to the archaeological area, is the necropolis, containing the monumental Tomba della Regina. Further towards the summit of Monte Adranone, there are the walls of the fortified part of the city, the artisans' quarter and a sanctuary surrounded by a temenos (sacred area), with a sacellum in front of it, where votive offerings were deposited. At the very top of the mountain is the acropolis.
Numerous votive offerings have been recovered from the city of Adranon, as well as amphorae, terracottas, busts of divinities, Attic pottery and bronze items. Many of these discoveries are on display in the Palazzo Panitteri Archaeological Museum, located in the historic centre of Sambuca di Sicilia.References:
Roman Walls of Lugo are an exceptional architectural, archaeological and constructive legacy of Roman engineering, dating from the 3rd and 4th centuries AD. The Walls are built of internal and external stone facings of slate with some granite, with a core filling of a conglomerate of slate slabs and worked stone pieces from Roman buildings, interlocked with lime mortar.
Their total length of 2117 m in the shape of an oblong rectangle occupies an area of 1.68 ha. Their height varies between 8 and 10 m, with a width of 4.2 m, reaching 7 m in some specific points. The walls still contain 85 external towers, 10 gates (five of which are original and five that were opened in modern times), four staircases and two ramps providing access to the walkway along the top of the walls, one of which is internal and the other external. Each tower contained access stairs leading from the intervallum to the wall walk of town wall, of which a total of 21 have been discovered to date.
The defences of Lugo are the most complete and best preserved example of Roman military architecture in the Western Roman Empire.
Despite the renovation work carried out, the walls conserve their original layout and the construction features associated with their defensive purpose, with walls, battlements, towers, fortifications, both modern and original gates and stairways, and a moat.
Since they were built, the walls have defined the layout and growth of the city, which was declared a Historical-Artistic Ensemble in 1973, forming a part of it and becoming an emblematic structure that can be freely accessed to walk along. The local inhabitants and visitors alike have used them as an area for enjoyment and as a part of urban life for centuries.
The fortifications were added to UNESCO"s World Heritage List in late 2000 and are a popular tourist attraction.