A keep, known as the Tower of Kingorne Wester, was in existence on the Rossend Castle site from 1119. It was later referred to as Burntisland Castle, and by 1382 was called Abbot's Hall, as it was the home of the Abbot of Dunfermline. The present building is largely of the 16th century, though with a 13th-century basement, which contains lancet windows and may represent the remains of a chapel. It was rebuilt by Peter Durie of Durie from 1552, and the arms of Abbot George Durie, and the date 1554, appear over the main door.
During the war of the Rough Wooing the English soldier John Luttrell landed at Burntisland on 28 December 1547. He burnt boats and buildings at the pier, and the owners of Rossend surrendered the castle to him.
Mary, Queen of Scots, visited during her short personal reign (1561–1567). On 14 February 1562, the French messenger and poet Chastelard was discovered hiding under Mary's bed in the castle.
On 11 May 1590 Sir Robert Melville hosted the Danish Admiral Peder Munk who was travelling to Falkland Palace to take possession of the lands granted to Anne of Denmark as part of her dowry.
In April 1594 James VI came to Rossend from Leith with his guard, and unsuccessfully tried to capture two rebel supporters of the Earl of Bothwell, Archibald Wauchope of Niddrie and John Wemyss of Logie.
The castle was acquired by the Town Council in 1952. In 1957, an early 17th-century painted timber ceiling was discovered; it is now in the National Museum of Scotland in Edinburgh. The ceiling includes the initials 'SRM' for 'Sir Robert Melville of Murdocairney' and emblems copied from the Devises Heroïques of Claude Paradin. The council threatened to demolish the property, which had been allowed to deteriorate, but it was saved after a public inquiry in 1972. It was bought in 1975 by the architecture firm Robert Hurd & Partners, who restored it and retain the building as their offices.References:
Roman Walls of Lugo are an exceptional architectural, archaeological and constructive legacy of Roman engineering, dating from the 3rd and 4th centuries AD. The Walls are built of internal and external stone facings of slate with some granite, with a core filling of a conglomerate of slate slabs and worked stone pieces from Roman buildings, interlocked with lime mortar.
Their total length of 2117 m in the shape of an oblong rectangle occupies an area of 1.68 ha. Their height varies between 8 and 10 m, with a width of 4.2 m, reaching 7 m in some specific points. The walls still contain 85 external towers, 10 gates (five of which are original and five that were opened in modern times), four staircases and two ramps providing access to the walkway along the top of the walls, one of which is internal and the other external. Each tower contained access stairs leading from the intervallum to the wall walk of town wall, of which a total of 21 have been discovered to date.
The defences of Lugo are the most complete and best preserved example of Roman military architecture in the Western Roman Empire.
Despite the renovation work carried out, the walls conserve their original layout and the construction features associated with their defensive purpose, with walls, battlements, towers, fortifications, both modern and original gates and stairways, and a moat.
Since they were built, the walls have defined the layout and growth of the city, which was declared a Historical-Artistic Ensemble in 1973, forming a part of it and becoming an emblematic structure that can be freely accessed to walk along. The local inhabitants and visitors alike have used them as an area for enjoyment and as a part of urban life for centuries.
The fortifications were added to UNESCO"s World Heritage List in late 2000 and are a popular tourist attraction.