The history of the Izrael Poznański Palace goes back to the 1860s. It was during this time that Kalman Poznański, a Polish-Jewish trader from Kowal in the Kuyavia region, arrived and began to live in Łódź. Kalman started a cotton industry, but it was not successful. However, when the business was taken over by his son Izrael Poznański (1833–1900), there was a phenomenal rise in the price of cotton around the world. Izrael made a fortune from cotton and spent a large part of his earnings on the palace, which eventually took on his name.
When Izrael Poznański acquired the site of the palace, there was a modest two-story building standing already. He renovated and expanded the building into a large residence. Taking his inspiration from the French neo-Renaissance, architect Hilary Majewski (and later Adolf Zeligson who modified the building) designed a suitably lavish abode which was meant to be the residence of Poznański, one of the key industrialists that drove the textile revolution in Łódź. The palace was marked for its opulence and grand size, and distinguished itself from the surrounding residences. The palace is also notable because of its L-shaped design. Another feature of the palace is the southern wing, which is topped with the tall domed roofs. It also included gardens filled with 'botanical phenomena' so rare to the country that their Latin names had no Polish equivalent at the time, a shooting range and exteriors boasting majestic domes, fancy embellishments and sculptures representing allegories of industry. Inside, a ballroom, a chamber of mirrors and a glass-ceilinged winter garden were also added to the labyrinthine layout. The interior decoration of the large Dining Room as well as the Ballroom was designed by a renowned Łódź artist and painter Samuel Hirszenberg.
Before the outbreak of World War II, members of the Poznański family emigrated to the Western Europe. During the German occupation, the palace served as headquarters of Nazi German authorities. After the war, the building served as the seat of the voivodeship office.
Since 1975, the palace has housed the Museum of the City of Łódź (Muzeum Miasta Łodzi). The museum possesses rich collections of numismatics, iconography, painting, sculpture, graphics, books and manuscripts.
In 2015, the palace was officially included on the List of Historic Monuments of Poland. In 2017, the process of revitalization of the palace was initiated, and work began on renovating the palace's facade. Renovation of the palace was completed in 2020.References:
Heraclea Lyncestis was an ancient Greek city in Macedon, ruled later by the Romans. It was founded by Philip II of Macedon in the middle of the 4th century BC. The city was named in honor of the mythological hero Heracles. The name Lynkestis originates from the name of the ancient kingdom, conquered by Philip, where the city was built.
Heraclea was a strategically important town during the Hellenistic period, as it was at the edge of Macedon"s border with Epirus to the west and Paeonia to the north, until the middle of the 2nd century BC, when the Romans conquered Macedon and destroyed its political power. The main Roman road in the area, Via Egnatia went through Heraclea, and Heraclea was an important stop. The prosperity of the city was maintained mainly due to this road.
The Roman emperor Hadrian built a theatre in the center of the town, on a hill, when many buildings in the Roman province of Macedonia were being restored. It began being used during the reign of Antoninus Pius. Inside the theatre there were three animal cages and in the western part a tunnel. The theatre went out of use during the late 4th century AD, when gladiator fights in the Roman Empire were banned, due to the spread of Christianity, the formulation of the Eastern Roman Empire, and the abandonment of, what was then perceived as, pagan rituals and entertainment.
In the early Byzantine period (4th to 6th centuries AD) Heraclea was an important episcopal centre. A small and a great basilica, the bishop"s residence, and a funerary basilica and the necropolis are some of the remains of this period. Three naves in the Great Basilica are covered with mosaics of very rich floral and figurative iconography; these well preserved mosaics are often regarded as fine examples of the early Christian art period.
The city was sacked by Ostrogoth/Visigoth forces, commanded by Theodoric the Great in 472 AD and again in 479 AD. It was restored in the late 5th and early 6th century. When an earthquake struck in 518 AD, the inhabitants of Heraclea gradually abandoned the city. Subsequently, at the eve of the 7th century, the Dragovites, a Slavic tribe pushed down from the north by the Avars, settled in the area. The last coin issue dates from ca. 585, which suggests that the city was finally captured by the Slavs. As result, in place of the deserted city theatre several huts were built.
The Episcopacy Residence was excavated between 1970 and 1975. The western part was discovered first and the southern side is near the town wall. The luxury rooms are located in the eastern part. The 2nd, 3rd and 4th rooms all have mosaic floors. Between the 3rd and 4th rooms there is a hole that led to the eastern entrance of the residence. The hole was purposefully created between the 4th and 6th century.