The Collegiate church of St. Mary and St. Alexius in Tum is a Romanesque church constructed out of granite blocks. It was built between the years 1140 and 1161.
Apart from religious functions, the collegiate church could also serve as a refugee for the local population. In 1241 it resisted the invasion of the Tatars, but in 1293 Lithuanians under the leadership of Witenes managed to get it. Part of the population was taken captive, and the rest were cut down or burned in church. Several years later, in 1306 Łęczyca was invaded by the Teutonic Knights, who returned here again in 1331.
For several decades the collegiate church was ruined. During its subsequent rebuilding, some of its former romanesque features were partially obliterated. Among other, after the fire in 1473, on the occasion of the completion of reconstruction in 1487, preserved to this day, gothic pointed arcades and pillars of bricks and grion vaults in the aisles appeared. In 1569, a renaissance porch with frescoes was built in front of the main entrance.
In 1705 Łęczyca was invaded by the Swedes, who also destroyed the collegiate. In the years 1765-1785 the church was rebuilt in classicist style. In 1818 Tsar Aleksander I Romanov ordered the dissolution of the Łęczyca Chapter and the collegiate church lost its rank. From that point until 1915, it remained a parish church. During the Battle of Bzura in 1939 it was partially destroyed and burned. In 1947 the postwar reconstruction of the church was started with the restoration of romanesque appearance.
The church was built using the opus emplectum technique. It has the form of an aisled basilica with galleries, a twin-tower west facade, and two apses (west and east). Round turrets at the east were added during reconstruction after World War II. The church resembles the Wawel Cathedral founded by Władysław I Herman. The main (north) portal is sculpted and dates back to the first half of 12th century. The crucifix inside the church was designed in 1943 by Józef Gosławski.References:
The Amphitheatre of the Three Gauls was part of the federal sanctuary of the three Gauls dedicated to the cult of Rome and Augustus celebrated by the 60 Gallic tribes when they gathered at Lugdunum (Lyon). The amphitheatre was built at the foot of the La Croix-Rousse hill at what was then the confluence of the Rhône and Saône.
Excavations have revealed a basement of three elliptical walls linked by cross-walls and a channel surrounding the oval central arena. The arena was slightly sloped, with the building"s south part supported by a now-vanished vault. The arena"s dimensions are 67,6m by 42m. This phase of the amphitheatre housed games which accompanied the imperial cult, with its low capacity (1,800 seats) being enough for delegations from the 60 Gallic tribes.
The amphitheatre was expanded at the start of the 2nd century. Two galleries were added around the old amphitheatre, raising its width from 25 metres to 105 metres and its capacity to about 20,000 seats. In so doing it made it a building open to the whole population of Lugdunum and its environs.