Among the limestone banks that characterise the area there are two low outcrops placed side by side with a slightly sloping rock face, in which a Necropolis (the Sardinian Domus de Janas) was carved. One outcrop houses the Tombs I-II, while the other houses the Tombs III-IX. Depending on the morphology, the entrances are preceded by short dromoi, that is corridors dug into the rock, sometimes leading to a pavilion (Tombs II, VIII, IX), where the access door opens. The tombs are all multicellular, mainly characterised by a “T-shaped” plan; some asymmetries suggest that expansion works have been carried out.
Among the nine tombs, the Tomb VIII stands out for the refinement of the decoration effects. It can be accessed from a raised dromos that leads to a quadrangular vestibule, without ceiling, that shows now only traces of cornices and pilasters. The antechamber has a tabular ceiling with the representation of a wooden roof; the back wall is characterised by a door framed on either side by lowered mirrors and cornices on the model of the wooden structures of domestic architecture which is symbolically imitated in the style of funerary architecture. The walls still preserve dual horn-shaped engravings, of the “boat-shaped” type. In the larger chamber there is a gable roof characterised by a central beam and seven joists per side; in the walls it is possible to see the wainscot at the base and pilasters reproducing the stakes of the supporting wooden structure of the huts. At both sides of the entrance it is possible to see “band” curved horns and the same pattern is repeated along the back wall, which is carved with a fake door, a kind of porta inferi (the door to the underworld). The remaining chambers do not show any decoration. In the adjoining Tomb IX, on the wall of the dromos, it is possible to see two juxtaposed hemispherical cupels.Outside the Tomb VII, there are two menhirs and a flat slab, probably symbols of the funeral area that included the Tombs VIII-IX.References:
Roman Walls of Lugo are an exceptional architectural, archaeological and constructive legacy of Roman engineering, dating from the 3rd and 4th centuries AD. The Walls are built of internal and external stone facings of slate with some granite, with a core filling of a conglomerate of slate slabs and worked stone pieces from Roman buildings, interlocked with lime mortar.
Their total length of 2117 m in the shape of an oblong rectangle occupies an area of 1.68 ha. Their height varies between 8 and 10 m, with a width of 4.2 m, reaching 7 m in some specific points. The walls still contain 85 external towers, 10 gates (five of which are original and five that were opened in modern times), four staircases and two ramps providing access to the walkway along the top of the walls, one of which is internal and the other external. Each tower contained access stairs leading from the intervallum to the wall walk of town wall, of which a total of 21 have been discovered to date.
The defences of Lugo are the most complete and best preserved example of Roman military architecture in the Western Roman Empire.
Despite the renovation work carried out, the walls conserve their original layout and the construction features associated with their defensive purpose, with walls, battlements, towers, fortifications, both modern and original gates and stairways, and a moat.
Since they were built, the walls have defined the layout and growth of the city, which was declared a Historical-Artistic Ensemble in 1973, forming a part of it and becoming an emblematic structure that can be freely accessed to walk along. The local inhabitants and visitors alike have used them as an area for enjoyment and as a part of urban life for centuries.
The fortifications were added to UNESCO"s World Heritage List in late 2000 and are a popular tourist attraction.