The first documents of Zalatambor Castle date back to 1024. This fort became known since the 13th century as the castle of Zalatambor, coinciding with the first fortifications made in the main rock.
In addition to the successive extensions and reforms of Zalatambor, the defense of the city was reinforced with the construction of a new castle, Belmecher, in 1276, and a tower as a defensive watchtower that, following the mountainous ridge, guarded the path of Castile. The three fortifications were joined by a wall forming the Estella castle enclosure, totally independent from the city.
Zalatambor Castle was a royal residence during the 13th, 14th and 15th centuries, with numerous rooms prepared for this purpose. However, since the mid-15th century the state of the castle, the result of the crisis caused by the civil war between Agramonteses and Beaumonteses, forced the monarchs to lodge during their stay in the noblest houses of the city.
In 1512 , the Beaumontesa-Castilian coalition conquered the castle, which, along with the rest of the kingdom, passed into Castilian hands. However, it continued in use until 1572, when the new defensive plan against France led to the construction of the citadel of Pamplona and the abandonment of the medieval Navarrese castles.
Its partial destruction was carried out by blowing up the main defensive elements. However, the current state of the castle is mainly due to its use as a quarry, documented in numerous lawsuits since its blasting.References:
Roman Walls of Lugo are an exceptional architectural, archaeological and constructive legacy of Roman engineering, dating from the 3rd and 4th centuries AD. The Walls are built of internal and external stone facings of slate with some granite, with a core filling of a conglomerate of slate slabs and worked stone pieces from Roman buildings, interlocked with lime mortar.
Their total length of 2117 m in the shape of an oblong rectangle occupies an area of 1.68 ha. Their height varies between 8 and 10 m, with a width of 4.2 m, reaching 7 m in some specific points. The walls still contain 85 external towers, 10 gates (five of which are original and five that were opened in modern times), four staircases and two ramps providing access to the walkway along the top of the walls, one of which is internal and the other external. Each tower contained access stairs leading from the intervallum to the wall walk of town wall, of which a total of 21 have been discovered to date.
The defences of Lugo are the most complete and best preserved example of Roman military architecture in the Western Roman Empire.
Despite the renovation work carried out, the walls conserve their original layout and the construction features associated with their defensive purpose, with walls, battlements, towers, fortifications, both modern and original gates and stairways, and a moat.
Since they were built, the walls have defined the layout and growth of the city, which was declared a Historical-Artistic Ensemble in 1973, forming a part of it and becoming an emblematic structure that can be freely accessed to walk along. The local inhabitants and visitors alike have used them as an area for enjoyment and as a part of urban life for centuries.
The fortifications were added to UNESCO"s World Heritage List in late 2000 and are a popular tourist attraction.