The Citadel of Pamplona is an old military renaissance fort, constructed between the 16th and 17th centuries. At present a large part of the fort it is still standing in a public park with cultural activities taking place in its buildings.
Philip II of Spain ordered his construction in 1571, following a plan for renovation and general reinforcement of the city walls. The defensive system was built in line with the theory of the Italian Renaissance which had been put into practice shortly before in the city of Antwerp. It was an enclosure in the shape of five-pointed star. All the possible angles of attack were controlled from each point of the star shaped border.
The fortress was reinforced with exterior 'half moons' in 1685 and in the first half of the 18th century, which reinforced the defensive system.
The citadel of Pamplona has not suffered significant defensive attacks. It has therefore rarely been besieged, although it has been taken. On February 16, 1808, Napoléon's French army under the command of General D’Armagnac, who by the treaty of Fontainebleau with King Charles IV, was allowed to cross the Iberian Peninsula for the Invasion of Portugal. With a strategic ambush, he invaded the city. His troops entered on February 9, 1808 through the San Nicolás gateway. The officers stayed in the nobles houses of the city and the rest of the soldiers, up to 4,000, were stationed in different areas. This situation was tense, which lead to a street brawl resulting in one of the soldiers being stabbed to death. In the increasingly hostile environment, Napoleon ordered D'Armagnac to take over the city. The plan was to take advantage of a snowstorm on February 16 when French soldiers approached the city playing snowball games in front of the defenders. When they were near, they took out the weapons they had hidden in their clothes and managed to enter and take over the city.
In 1823 the liberal soldiers offered greater resistance for five months before the army of the Hundred Thousand Sons of St. Louis. The intention was to besiege it, without taking it, to prevent the departure of the soldiers, while the rest of the army went all over the peninsula to restore absolutism. Subsequently, on September 3, they began bombing the city of Pamplona. On September 16, after another heavy bombing, they surrendered.
During the Spanish Civil War, the rebels carried out numerous executions of Republicans at the Socorro Gate amid the Spanish Civil War, through a very harsh repression in Navarre. A plaque was placed in his memory in 2007 that was replaced in March 2012 by a monolith with the same text in the area of the moats near the street, Socorro Gate. The inscription, in Spanish and Basque, reads as follows:
In 1964, the town of Pamplona was no longer used by the military. The military part of Pamplona was turned into a popular park (known in Spanish as La Planta de la Ciudadela) with the old military buildings being used for cultural events. Some buildings located in the inner section of the park are preserved. These historic military buildings were taken care of after the city received the fortified enclosure that surrounds the park.References:
Tyniec Benedictine abbey was founded by King Casimir the Restorer probably around 1044. Casimir decided to rebuild the newly established Kingdom of Poland, after a Pagan rebellion and a disastrous Czech raid of Duke Bretislaus I (1039). The Benedictines, invited to Tyniec by the King, were tasked with restoring order as well as cementing the position of the State and the Church. First Tyniec Abbot was Aaron, who became the Bishop of Kraków. Since there is no conclusive evidence to support the foundation date as 1040, some historians claim that the abbey was founded by Casimir the Restorer’ son, King Boleslaw II the Generous.
In the second half of the 11th century, a complex of Romanesque buildings was completed, consisting of a basilica and the abbey. In the 14th century, it was destroyed in Tatar and Czech raids, and in the 15th century it was rebuilt in Gothic style. Further remodelings took place in the 17th and 18th centuries, first in Baroque, then in Rococo style. The abbey was partly destroyed in the Swedish invasion of Poland, and soon afterwards was rebuilt, with a new library. Further destruction took place during the Bar Confederation, when Polish rebels turned the abbey into their fortress.
In 1816, Austrian authorities liquidated the abbey, and in 1821-1826, it was the seat of the Bishop of Tyniec, Grzegorz Tomasz Ziegler. The monks, however, did not return to the abbey until 1939, and in 1947, remodelling of the neglected complex was initiated. In 1968, the Church of St. Peter and Paul was once again named the seat of the abbot. The church itself consists of a Gothic presbytery and a Baroque main nave. Several altars were created by an 18th-century Italian sculptor Francesco Placidi. The church also has a late Baroque pulpit by Franciszek Jozef Mangoldt.