Hohenberg Castle, situated adjacent to Czech Republic border, was built in the Hohenstaufen period between 1170 and 1220 to protect the important Schirndinger Pass. Around 1300 Hohenberg came to the possession of burgraves from Nuremberg. in 1433, Hans von Kotzau defended Hohenberg against the Hussites.
The present castle was built mainly (ring wall, round towers) in the period around 1480. In the years 1499 and 1504 was reported by the construction of the outer bailey. In the years 1621 and 1622 Margrave Christian had massive, provided with seven bastions earthen walls around the castle, which were additionally fortified with palisades . However, these precautions did not help much, as in June 1632 imperial troops took the pass from Schirnding, conquered the Hohenberg and occupied it for three years. After the Thirty Years War, Hohenberg Castle lost its strategic importance.
Since 2017, Hohenberg castle has been extensively renovated and used as a youth hostel as well as for meetings.
The castle is surrounded by the ring wall built around 1480 on an irregular hexagonal floor plan, which is additionally attached to the corner points by the gatehouse, three round gun turrets and the square prison tower. A fourth round tower was abandoned in the 19th century. From the medieval interior is nothing left. The so-called princely house was built by Margrave Christian Ernst in 1666 as a town hall and hunting lodge. Other buildings inside the castle were demolished in the 19th century. A remnant of the earthwork from the years 1621/22 has survived.
Roman Walls of Lugo are an exceptional architectural, archaeological and constructive legacy of Roman engineering, dating from the 3rd and 4th centuries AD. The Walls are built of internal and external stone facings of slate with some granite, with a core filling of a conglomerate of slate slabs and worked stone pieces from Roman buildings, interlocked with lime mortar.
Their total length of 2117 m in the shape of an oblong rectangle occupies an area of 1.68 ha. Their height varies between 8 and 10 m, with a width of 4.2 m, reaching 7 m in some specific points. The walls still contain 85 external towers, 10 gates (five of which are original and five that were opened in modern times), four staircases and two ramps providing access to the walkway along the top of the walls, one of which is internal and the other external. Each tower contained access stairs leading from the intervallum to the wall walk of town wall, of which a total of 21 have been discovered to date.
The defences of Lugo are the most complete and best preserved example of Roman military architecture in the Western Roman Empire.
Despite the renovation work carried out, the walls conserve their original layout and the construction features associated with their defensive purpose, with walls, battlements, towers, fortifications, both modern and original gates and stairways, and a moat.
Since they were built, the walls have defined the layout and growth of the city, which was declared a Historical-Artistic Ensemble in 1973, forming a part of it and becoming an emblematic structure that can be freely accessed to walk along. The local inhabitants and visitors alike have used them as an area for enjoyment and as a part of urban life for centuries.
The fortifications were added to UNESCO"s World Heritage List in late 2000 and are a popular tourist attraction.