Hohenberg Castle, situated adjacent to Czech Republic border, was built in the Hohenstaufen period between 1170 and 1220 to protect the important Schirndinger Pass. Around 1300 Hohenberg came to the possession of burgraves from Nuremberg. in 1433, Hans von Kotzau defended Hohenberg against the Hussites.
The present castle was built mainly (ring wall, round towers) in the period around 1480. In the years 1499 and 1504 was reported by the construction of the outer bailey. In the years 1621 and 1622 Margrave Christian had massive, provided with seven bastions earthen walls around the castle, which were additionally fortified with palisades . However, these precautions did not help much, as in June 1632 imperial troops took the pass from Schirnding, conquered the Hohenberg and occupied it for three years. After the Thirty Years War, Hohenberg Castle lost its strategic importance.
Since 2017, Hohenberg castle has been extensively renovated and used as a youth hostel as well as for meetings.
The castle is surrounded by the ring wall built around 1480 on an irregular hexagonal floor plan, which is additionally attached to the corner points by the gatehouse, three round gun turrets and the square prison tower. A fourth round tower was abandoned in the 19th century. From the medieval interior is nothing left. The so-called princely house was built by Margrave Christian Ernst in 1666 as a town hall and hunting lodge. Other buildings inside the castle were demolished in the 19th century. A remnant of the earthwork from the years 1621/22 has survived.
The Church of the Savior on Spilled Blood is one of the main sights of St. Petersburg. The church was built on the site where Tsar Alexander II was assassinated and was dedicated in his memory. Construction began in 1883 under Alexander III, as a memorial to his father, Alexander II. Work progressed slowly and was finally completed during the reign of Nicholas II in 1907. Funding was provided by the Imperial family with the support of many private donors.
Architecturally, the Cathedral differs from St. Petersburg's other structures. The city's architecture is predominantly Baroque and Neoclassical, but the Savior on Blood harks back to medieval Russian architecture in the spirit of romantic nationalism. It intentionally resembles the 17th-century Yaroslavl churches and the celebrated St. Basil's Cathedral in Moscow.
The Church contains over 7500 square metres of mosaics — according to its restorers, more than any other church in the world. The interior was designed by some of the most celebrated Russian artists of the day — including Viktor Vasnetsov, Mikhail Nesterov and Mikhail Vrubel — but the church's chief architect, Alfred Alexandrovich Parland, was relatively little-known (born in St. Petersburg in 1842 in a Baltic-German Lutheran family). Perhaps not surprisingly, the Church's construction ran well over budget, having been estimated at 3.6 million roubles but ending up costing over 4.6 million. The walls and ceilings inside the Church are completely covered in intricately detailed mosaics — the main pictures being biblical scenes or figures — but with very fine patterned borders setting off each picture.
In the aftermath of the Russian Revolution, the church was ransacked and looted, badly damaging its interior. The Soviet government closed the church in the early 1930s. During the Second World War when many people were starving due to the Siege of Leningrad by Nazi German military forces, the church was used as a temporary morgue for those who died in combat and from starvation and illness. The church suffered significant damage. After the war, it was used as a warehouse for vegetables, leading to the sardonic name of Saviour on Potatoes.
In July 1970, management of the Church passed to Saint Isaac's Cathedral (then used as a highly profitable museum) and proceeds from the Cathedral were funneled back into restoring the Church. It was reopened in August 1997, after 27 years of restoration, but has not been reconsecrated and does not function as a full-time place of worship; it is a Museum of Mosaics. Even before the Revolution it never functioned as a public place of worship; having been dedicated exclusively to the memory of the assassinated tsar, the only services were panikhidas (memorial services). The Church is now one of the main tourist attractions in St. Petersburg.