Aizpute castle was built in the 13th and 14th centuries by the Livonian Order. This was regular planned castella type Order’s Castle with corner tower and wooden buildings in the yard. In the 15th century outside at the ring-wall was built the eastern block. After the Livonian War (1558-1583) castle was not suitable for habitation and in written documents from 1555 it is mentioned as a grain storehouse. At the time from end of the 16th till beginning of the 17th century castle was renovated and there still remain the rich parget with the splendid decorative design in the graffiti artistry above the gates that was shaped in that time.
In fights of the Swedish-Polish War (1600-1629) the castle was ravaged again, but in 1665 there were done the renovation works and the garrisons and gun-crews of Jacob the Duke of Courland were deployed there. After the death of Duke Jacob in 1682 castle became the property of Michael Fredrick Nolde. After rebuilding the castle lost its medieval shape of fortress and inside the ring-wall the new living block was added. Gradually the castle lost its adhibition as a dwelling and was inhabited just partly. For that time the culture level in the yard has grown up for 1.5 metres. In the beginning of the 19th century the eastern block and the south-eastern tower got their present flat vaulting and new partition walls. For the beginning of the 20th century the castle of Aizpute was unsuitable for inhabiting and for present day it has partly gone to rack and ruins.
In the beginning of the 19th century, when some parts became unsuitable for inhabiting, the lord of the manor lived in the new manor-house that was built near at the pond in the 2nd half of the 18th century. Later at the pond were built the water mill and the spirit distillery, but at the new manor-house were built the household buildings. Aizpute Evangelic-Lutheran Church and the former castle13-manor complex of buildings creates the unified group of towns-planning architectural objects that also includes the pond and water mill with the dam on the Tebra River.References:
The Moszna Castle is one of the best known monuments in the western part of Upper Silesia. The history of this building begins in the 17th century, although much older cellars were found in the gardens during excavations carried out at the beginning of the 20th century. Some of the investigators, including H. Barthel, claimed that those cellars could have been remnants of a presumed Templar castle, but their theory has never been proved. After World War II, further excavations discovered a medieval palisade.
The central part of the castle is an old baroque palace which was partially destroyed by fire on the night of April 2, 1896 and was reconstructed in the same year in its original form by Franz Hubert von Tiele-Winckler. The reconstruction works involved an extension of the residence. The eastern Neogothic-styled wing of the building was built by 1900, along with an adjacent orangery. In 1912-1914, the western wing was built in the Neo-Renaissance style. The architectural form of the castle contains a wide variety of styles, thus it can be generally defined as eclectic.
The height of the building, as well as its numerous turrets and spires, give the impression of verticalism. The whole castle has exactly ninety-nine turrets. Inside, it contains 365 rooms. The castle was twice visited by the German Emperor Wilhelm II. His participation in hunting during his stay at the castle was documented in a hand-written chronicle in 1911 as well as in the following year. The castle in Moszna was the residence of a Silesian family Tiele-Winckler who were industrial magnates, from 1866 until the spring of 1945 when they were forced to move to Germany and the castle was occupied by the Red Army. The period of the Soviet control caused significant damage to the castle's internal fittings in comparison to the minor damage caused by WWII.
After World War II the castle did not have a permanent owner and was the home of various institutions until 1972 when it became a convalescent home. Later it became a Public Health Care Centre for Therapies of Neuroses. Nowadays it can be visited by tourists since the health institution has moved to another building in the neighbourhood. The castle also has a chapel which is used as a concert hall. Since 1998 the castle housed a gallery in which works of various artists are presented at regular exhibitions.
Apart from the castle itself, the entire complex includes a park which has no precise boundaries and includes nearby fields, meadows and a forest. Only the main axis of the park can be characterised as geometrical. Starting from the gate, it leads along the oak and then horse-chestnut avenues, towards the castle. Further on, the park passes into an avenue of lime trees with symmetrical canals running along both sides of the path, lined with a few varieties of rhododendrons. The axis of the park terminates at the base of a former monument of Hubert von Tiele-Winckler. On the eastern side of the avenue there is a pond with an islet referred to by the owners as Easter Island. The islet is planted with needle-leaved shrubs and can be reached by a Chinese-styled bridge. The garden, as part of the whole park complex was restored slightly earlier than the castle itself. Preserved documents of 1868 state that the improvement in the garden's aesthetic quality was undertaken by Hubert von Tiele-Winckler.