Aizpute castle was built in the 13th and 14th centuries by the Livonian Order. This was regular planned castella type Order’s Castle with corner tower and wooden buildings in the yard. In the 15th century outside at the ring-wall was built the eastern block. After the Livonian War (1558-1583) castle was not suitable for habitation and in written documents from 1555 it is mentioned as a grain storehouse. At the time from end of the 16th till beginning of the 17th century castle was renovated and there still remain the rich parget with the splendid decorative design in the graffiti artistry above the gates that was shaped in that time.
In fights of the Swedish-Polish War (1600-1629) the castle was ravaged again, but in 1665 there were done the renovation works and the garrisons and gun-crews of Jacob the Duke of Courland were deployed there. After the death of Duke Jacob in 1682 castle became the property of Michael Fredrick Nolde. After rebuilding the castle lost its medieval shape of fortress and inside the ring-wall the new living block was added. Gradually the castle lost its adhibition as a dwelling and was inhabited just partly. For that time the culture level in the yard has grown up for 1.5 metres. In the beginning of the 19th century the eastern block and the south-eastern tower got their present flat vaulting and new partition walls. For the beginning of the 20th century the castle of Aizpute was unsuitable for inhabiting and for present day it has partly gone to rack and ruins.
In the beginning of the 19th century, when some parts became unsuitable for inhabiting, the lord of the manor lived in the new manor-house that was built near at the pond in the 2nd half of the 18th century. Later at the pond were built the water mill and the spirit distillery, but at the new manor-house were built the household buildings. Aizpute Evangelic-Lutheran Church and the former castle13-manor complex of buildings creates the unified group of towns-planning architectural objects that also includes the pond and water mill with the dam on the Tebra River.References:
From its origin as a small stronghold built by the ancient Illyrian tribe Dalmatae, becoming a royal castle that was the seat of many Croatian kings, to its final development as a large fortress during the Ottoman wars in Europe, Klis Fortress has guarded the frontier, being lost and re-conquered several times. Due to its location on a pass that separates the mountains Mosor and Kozjak, the fortress served as a major source of defense in Dalmatia, especially against the Ottoman advance, and has been a key crossroad between the Mediterranean belt and the Balkan rear.
Since Duke Mislav of the Duchy of Croatia made Klis Fortress the seat of his throne in the middle of the 9th century, the fortress served as the seat of many Croatia"s rulers. The reign of his successor, Duke Trpimir I, the founder of the Croatian royal House of Trpimirović, is significant for spreading Christianity in the Duchy of Croatia. He largely expanded the Klis Fortress, and in Rižinice, in the valley under the fortress, he built a church and the first Benedictine monastery in Croatia. During the reign of the first Croatian king, Tomislav, Klis and Biograd na Moru were his chief residences.
In March 1242 at Klis Fortress, Tatars who were a constituent segment of the Mongol army under the leadership of Kadan suffered a major defeat while in pursuit of the Hungarian army led by King Béla IV. After their defeat by Croatian forces, the Mongols retreated, and Béla IV rewarded many Croatian towns and nobles with 'substantial riches'. During the Late Middle Ages, the fortress was governed by Croatian nobility, amongst whom Paul I Šubić of Bribir was the most significant. During his reign, the House of Šubić controlled most of modern-day Croatia and Bosnia. Excluding the brief possession by the forces of Bosnian King, Tvrtko I, the fortress remained in Hungaro-Croatian hands for the next several hundred years, until the 16th century.
Klis Fortress is probably best known for its defense against the Ottoman invasion of Europe in the early 16th century. Croatian captain Petar Kružić led the defense of the fortress against a Turkish invasion and siege that lasted for more than two and a half decades. During this defense, as Kružić and his soldiers fought without allies against the Turks, the military faction of Uskoks was formed, which later became famous as an elite Croatian militant sect. Ultimately, the defenders were defeated and the fortress was occupied by the Ottomans in 1537. After more than a century under Ottoman rule, in 1669, Klis Fortress was besieged and seized by the Republic of Venice, thus moving the border between Christian and Muslim Europe further east and helping to contribute to the decline of the Ottoman Empire. The Venetians restored and enlarged the fortress, but it was taken by the Austrians after Napoleon extinguished the republic itself in 1797. Today, Klis Fortress contains a museum where visitors to this historic military structure can see an array of arms, armor, and traditional uniforms.