Yaroslav's Court (Yaroslavovo Dvorishche) was the princely compound in the city of Novgorod the Great. Today it is roughly the area around the Trade Mart, the St. Nicholas Cathedral, the Church of St. Procopius, and the Church of the Myrrh-bearing Women. The Trade Mart renovated and heavily modified in the 16th and 17th centuries, is all that is left of the princely palace itself. The prince also had a compound called the Riurik's Court (Riurikovo Gorodishche) south of the marketside of the city.

Yaroslav's Court is named after Yaroslav the Wise who, while prince of Novgorod in 988–1015, built a palace there. The Novgorodian veche often met in front of Yaroslav's Court and in 1224 several pagan sorcerers were burned at the stake there.

According to the traditional scholarship, after the Novgorodians evicted Prince Vsevolod Mstislavich in 1136, Novgorod began electing their princes and forbade them from holding land in Novgorod. Yaroslav's Court then ceased to be a princely compound and the prince resided at Riurik's Court. Between 1113 and 1136, the Saint Nicholas Cathedral was built at the court. The cathedral is intact and is the second oldest building in Novgorod after the Saint Sophia Cathedral.

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Founded: 11th century
Category: Historic city squares, old towns and villages in Russia

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Евгений Сорокин (7 months ago)
The arcade of Gostiny Dvor and the Gate Tower of Gostiny Dvor are what remains of the once large complex of its buildings. The stone buildings of Gostiny Dvor began to be erected in 1692 and completed in 1700. Gostiny Dvor consisted of buildings connected to each other in a line, located along the perimeter of a trapezoid (irregular quadrangle), forming a closed courtyard. It is sometimes described as a trapezoidal square. In the 1770s, Gostiny Dvor was reconstructed on the old foundation. A building with an arcade was erected, forming the western line (partly included in the north and south). In 1889, this building (line) had 21 shops, each with a separate entrance and a window with an iron grate. The windows overlooked the gallery, the western part of which was the arcade. During the Second World War, the buildings of the Gostiny Dvor received significant damage. All buildings, except for the Gate Tower, were dismantled. Only the arcade was preserved, which was previously part of the building (gallery) of the shopping arcade, while it was also going to be dismantled, but after the intervention of a number of representatives of Soviet science and culture, the arcade was saved. According to some reports, part of it was dismantled when instructions from Moscow followed, and the arcade had to be restored. Now the arcade of Gostiny Dvor is one of the attractions of Novgorod, although not all tourists understand what kind of structure it is. Moreover, not all Novgorodians know this. The arcade looks very nice from the pedestrian bridge over the Volkhov, especially at night in the backlight. There is still such a thing with backlight. There is such a plate between the columns of the arcade, from which it can be learned that the lighting of the arcade was carried out with the support of the Governor of St. Petersburg V.I. and the Government of St. Petersburg (members of the government, unlike the governor, are not listed by name) in June 2011. This is a fairly common example of the expression of the commanding servility of the leadership of Veliky Novgorod. Not only is the surname, name and patronymic of the now former governor completely written in capital letters, and these are the only words in the text, which is written in this way, and the very name of the monument is written in small letters. But the point is also that I have not seen or found any sign indicating what the monument itself is, that is, the arcade of Gostiny Dvor. In other words, we have a pointer to highlight the monument, but there is no pointer to the monument. It is clear that lighting is more important for Novgorod officials, given who supported it. And the arcade - so, an attachment to the lighting, no more.
heaven lee (14 months ago)
Interesting History. Novgorod was once a big commercial spot. This city was one of Hanseatic alliance city, with London and Stokholm. Properous city. But Ivan the terrible trampled this city, because it is dangerous to Moscow country and did not obey to his opinion. According to explanation this territory was for selling products, like market.
Mircea Stoica (2 years ago)
Recommend.
The Master (2 years ago)
Ухоженные место, погулять вокруг одно удовольствие. Но памятник стоит посещать только в летнее время года, так как зимой немного не то впечатление. Он по сути должен подсвечиваться вечером, что должно выглядеть очень красиво, но нам не удалось этого увидеть, ушли раньше. В целом выглядит не заброшено, как это бывает со многими культурными архитектурными памятниками в России, и это радует
Ria K (3 years ago)
Nice place
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Pembroke Castle

Pembroke Castle is a Norman castle, founded in 1093. It survived many changes of ownership and is now the largest privately owned castle in Wales. It was the birthplace of Henry Tudor (later Henry VII of England) in 1457.

Pembroke Castle stands on a site that has been occupied at least since the Roman period. Roger de Montgomerie, 1st Earl of Shrewsbury founded the first castle here in the 11th century. Although only made from earth and wood, Pembroke Castle resisted several Welsh attacks and sieges over the next 30 years. The castle was established at the heart of the Norman-controlled lands of southwest Wales.

When William Rufus died, Arnulf de Montgomery joined his elder brother, Robert of Bellême, in rebellion against Henry I, William's brother and successor as king; when the rebellion failed, he was forced to forfeit all his British lands and titles. Henry appointed his castellan, but when the chosen ally turned out to be incompetent, the King reappointed Gerald in 1102. By 1138 King Stephen had given Pembroke Castle to Gilbert de Clare who used it as an important base in the Norman invasion of Ireland.

In August 1189 Richard I arranged the marriage of Isabel, de Clare's granddaughter, to William Marshal who received both the castle and the title, Earl of Pembroke. He had the castle rebuilt in stone and established the great keep at the same time. Marshal was succeeded in turn by each of his five sons. His third son, Gilbert Marshal, was responsible for enlarging and further strengthening the castle between 1234 and 1241.

Later de Valence family held Pembroke for 70 years. During this time, the town was fortified with defensive walls, three main gates and a postern. Pembroke Castle became de Valence's military base for fighting the Welsh princes during the conquest of North Wales by Edward I between 1277 and 1295.

Pembroke Castle then reverted to the crown. In the 15th and 16th centuries, the castle was a place of peace until the outbreak of the English Civil War. Although most of South Wales sided with the King, Pembroke declared for Parliament. It was besieged by Royalist troops but was saved after Parliamentary reinforcements arrived by sea from nearby Milford Haven. Parliamentary forces then went on to capture the Royalist castles of Tenby, Haverfordwest and Carew.

In 1648, at the beginning of the Second Civil War, Pembroke's commander Colonel John Poyer led a Royalist uprising. Oliver Cromwell came to Pembroke on 24 May 1648 and took the castle after a seven-week siege. Its three leaders were found guilty of treason and Cromwell ordered the castle to be destroyed. Townspeople were even encouraged to disassemble the fortress and re-use its stone for their purposes.

The castle was then abandoned and allowed to decay. It remained in ruins until 1880, when a three-year restoration project was undertaken. Nothing further was done until 1928, when Major-General Sir Ivor Philipps acquired the castle and began an extensive restoration of the castle's walls, gatehouses, and towers. After his death, a trust was set up for the castle, jointly managed by the Philipps family and Pembroke town council.

Architecture

The castle is sited on a strategic rocky promontory by the Milford Haven Waterway. The first fortification on the site was a Norman motte-and-bailey. It had earthen ramparts and a timber palisade.

In 1189, Pembroke Castle was acquired by William Marshal. He soon became Lord Marshal of England, and set about turning the earth and wood fort into an impressive Norman stone castle. The inner ward, which was constructed first, contains the huge round keep with its domed roof. Its original first-floor entrance was through an external stairwell. Inside, a spiral staircase connected its four stories. The keep's domed roof also has several putlog holes that supported a wooden fighting-platform. If the castle was attacked, the hoarding allowed defenders to go out beyond the keep's massive walls above the heads of the attackers.

The inner ward's curtain wall had a large horseshoe-shaped gateway. But only a thin wall was required along the promontory. This section of the wall has a small observation turret and a square stone platform. Domestic buildings including William Marshal's Great Hall and private apartments were within the inner ward. The 13th century keep is 23 metres tall with walls up to 6 metres thick at its base.

In the late 13th century, additional buildings were added to the inner ward, including a new Great Hall. A 55-step spiral staircase was also created that led down to a large limestone cave, known as Wogan Cavern, beneath the castle. The cave, which was created by natural water erosion, was fortified with a wall, a barred gateway and arrowslits. It may have served as a boathouse or a sallyport to the river where cargo or people could have been transferred.

The outer ward was defended by a large twin-towered gatehouse, a barbican and several round towers. The outer wall is 5 metres thick in places and constructed from Siltstone ashlar.

Although Pembroke Castle is a Norman-style enclosure castle with great keep, it can be more accurately described as a linear fortification because, like the later 13th-century castles at Caernarfon and Conwy, it was built on a rocky promontory surrounded by water. This meant that attacking forces could only assault on a narrow front. Architecturally, Pembroke's thickest walls and towers are all concentrated on its landward side facing the town, with Pembroke River providing a natural defense around the rest of its perimeter.