St. Bendt's Church was originally part of a Benedictine monastery that burnt down in the 18th century. Built in the Romanesque style, it is the oldest brick church in Scandinavia, dating back to about 1170 when it replaced a travertine church from about 1080. It is considered to be one of Denmark's architecturally finest churches. Furthermore, it is of special historical interest as it is first Royal church in Denmark and it houses the tombs of many of Denmark's earlier monarchs and noblemen.
During comprehensive restoration work at the beginning of the 20th century, the foundations of the former travertine church (1080) were revealed, indicating that the older nave was approximately the same length as today's. The church was originally dedicated to St. Mary. In 1157, Saint Canute Lavard's bones were moved into a new chapel in the church with the approval of St. Canute's son, Valdemar the Great. Many miracles were said to have occurred there and the church immediately became a popular site for pilgrimages. With the funds raised from the pilgrims and thanks to Valdemar's royal patronage, the abbey church was expanded and, in 1170, was dedicated with great ceremony to Benedict of Nursia.
Valdemar had from the beginning designed the church for the Danish monarchy. He took advantage of the inaugural celebrations not only to have the relics of his father, St. Canute, enshrined but, also a devil statue erected in his honor and above all, to have his seven-year-old son Canute crowned and appointed by the archbishop in order to ensure the succession.
The church formed the north wing of a large monastery, probably built at the same time as the church. The architectural style indicatesLombard influence, possibly because the Benedictines brought Lombard builders to Denmark. The structure of the church is cross-shaped with a central tower, typical of Romanesque architecture. There were, however, some later modifications in theGothic style such as the vaults, replacing the original flat ceiling, and the pointed arches in the tower.
A fire in 1806 destroyed the monastery and damaged the church. As a result, the western wall was pulled down and replaced with an Empire style facade. The brickwork of the church's outer walls was covered with cement and limewashed. Large-scale restoration work was carried out between 1899 and 1910 by the Danish architect H. B. Storck who set out to restore the church to its former Romanesque style. It was the first time such extensive restoration work had been carried out in Denmark. The church took on its old appearance with new Romanesque windows in the nave. A pyramid-shaped spire was added to the tower. The cement was removed from the outer walls revealing the church's original red brickwork.
As the church houses the tomb of Valdemar the Great, it is of great historical significance to Denmark. Since St. Canute's relics were enshrined in a chapel behind the high altar, the monarchs of Valdemar's line were buried in front of it. Indeed, from 1182 to 1341 all the Danish kings and queens were buried in St. Bendt's. Apart from Valdemar the Great, they included Canute VI, Valdemar II, Eric VI and Eric IV. It is second only to Roskilde Cathedral for the number of royal Danish tombs it contains.
The rather poorly restored wall paintings are significant in that they provide an idea of the violent struggles that once took place. Jacob Kornerup uncovered murals in the chancel in 1868. In 1889, he restored them, or possibly repainted them, as they are indeed in very poor condition. Others were uncovered during the 1900–09 repairs and restored by Mads Henriksen. They depict various monarchs, some with Latin inscriptions. There are also images of the Virgin Mary and of Christ.
Of particular note are the frescos of Erik IV, also known as Erik Ploughpenny for the unpopular taxes he imposed on ploughs. They were painted around 1300 in an unsuccessful attempt to have the assassinated king canonized. To the left of a painting of Queen Agnes sitting on her throne is a picture of the king's murderers stabbing him with a spear while, on the right, we see fishermen retrieving the corpse from the sea.
The oak choir stalls from 1420 are similar to those in Roskilde Cathedral. The sandstone font (c. 1150) is of Gothlandic design and believed to be one of Sighraf's earlier works.
The altarpiece (1699) presents a painting of the Last Supper flanked by panels with cherubim, John the Baptist and Moses. The pulpit (1609) presents the four elements: earth, fire, air and water.References:
The Jelling stones are massive carved runestones from the 10th century, found at the town of Jelling in Denmark. The older of the two Jelling stones was raised by King Gorm the Old in memory of his wife Thyra. The larger of the two stones was raised by King Gorm's son, Harald Bluetooth in memory of his parents, celebrating his conquest of Denmark and Norway, and his conversion of the Danes to Christianity. The runic inscriptions on these stones are considered the most well known in Denmark.
The Jelling stones stand in the churchyard of Jelling church between two large mounds. The stones represent the transitional period between the indigenous Norse paganism and the process of Christianization in Denmark; the larger stone is often cited as Denmark's baptismal certificate (dåbsattest), containing a depiction of Christ. They are strongly identified with the creation of Denmark as a nation state and both stones feature one of the earliest records of the name 'Danmark'.
After having been exposed to all kinds of weather for a thousand years cracks are beginning to show. On the 15th of November 2008 experts from UNESCO examined the stones to determine their condition. Experts requested that the stones be moved to an indoor exhibition hall, or in some other way protected in situ, to prevent further damage from the weather.
Heritage Agency of Denmark decided to keep the stones in their current location and selected a protective casing design from 157 projects submitted through a competition. The winner of the competition was Nobel Architects. The glass casing creates a climate system that keeps the stones at a fixed temperature and humidity and protects them from weathering. The design features rectangular glass casings strengthened by two solid bronze sides mounted on a supporting steel skeleton. The glass is coated with an anti-reflective material that gives the exhibit a greenish hue. Additionally, the bronze patina gives off a rusty, greenish colour, highlighting the runestones' gray and reddish tones and emphasising their monumental character and significance.