St. Bendt's Church was originally part of a Benedictine monastery that burnt down in the 18th century. Built in the Romanesque style, it is the oldest brick church in Scandinavia, dating back to about 1170 when it replaced a travertine church from about 1080. It is considered to be one of Denmark's architecturally finest churches. Furthermore, it is of special historical interest as it is first Royal church in Denmark and it houses the tombs of many of Denmark's earlier monarchs and noblemen.
During comprehensive restoration work at the beginning of the 20th century, the foundations of the former travertine church (1080) were revealed, indicating that the older nave was approximately the same length as today's. The church was originally dedicated to St. Mary. In 1157, Saint Canute Lavard's bones were moved into a new chapel in the church with the approval of St. Canute's son, Valdemar the Great. Many miracles were said to have occurred there and the church immediately became a popular site for pilgrimages. With the funds raised from the pilgrims and thanks to Valdemar's royal patronage, the abbey church was expanded and, in 1170, was dedicated with great ceremony to Benedict of Nursia.
Valdemar had from the beginning designed the church for the Danish monarchy. He took advantage of the inaugural celebrations not only to have the relics of his father, St. Canute, enshrined but, also a devil statue erected in his honor and above all, to have his seven-year-old son Canute crowned and appointed by the archbishop in order to ensure the succession.
The church formed the north wing of a large monastery, probably built at the same time as the church. The architectural style indicatesLombard influence, possibly because the Benedictines brought Lombard builders to Denmark. The structure of the church is cross-shaped with a central tower, typical of Romanesque architecture. There were, however, some later modifications in theGothic style such as the vaults, replacing the original flat ceiling, and the pointed arches in the tower.
A fire in 1806 destroyed the monastery and damaged the church. As a result, the western wall was pulled down and replaced with an Empire style facade. The brickwork of the church's outer walls was covered with cement and limewashed. Large-scale restoration work was carried out between 1899 and 1910 by the Danish architect H. B. Storck who set out to restore the church to its former Romanesque style. It was the first time such extensive restoration work had been carried out in Denmark. The church took on its old appearance with new Romanesque windows in the nave. A pyramid-shaped spire was added to the tower. The cement was removed from the outer walls revealing the church's original red brickwork.
As the church houses the tomb of Valdemar the Great, it is of great historical significance to Denmark. Since St. Canute's relics were enshrined in a chapel behind the high altar, the monarchs of Valdemar's line were buried in front of it. Indeed, from 1182 to 1341 all the Danish kings and queens were buried in St. Bendt's. Apart from Valdemar the Great, they included Canute VI, Valdemar II, Eric VI and Eric IV. It is second only to Roskilde Cathedral for the number of royal Danish tombs it contains.
The rather poorly restored wall paintings are significant in that they provide an idea of the violent struggles that once took place. Jacob Kornerup uncovered murals in the chancel in 1868. In 1889, he restored them, or possibly repainted them, as they are indeed in very poor condition. Others were uncovered during the 1900–09 repairs and restored by Mads Henriksen. They depict various monarchs, some with Latin inscriptions. There are also images of the Virgin Mary and of Christ.
Of particular note are the frescos of Erik IV, also known as Erik Ploughpenny for the unpopular taxes he imposed on ploughs. They were painted around 1300 in an unsuccessful attempt to have the assassinated king canonized. To the left of a painting of Queen Agnes sitting on her throne is a picture of the king's murderers stabbing him with a spear while, on the right, we see fishermen retrieving the corpse from the sea.
The oak choir stalls from 1420 are similar to those in Roskilde Cathedral. The sandstone font (c. 1150) is of Gothlandic design and believed to be one of Sighraf's earlier works.
The altarpiece (1699) presents a painting of the Last Supper flanked by panels with cherubim, John the Baptist and Moses. The pulpit (1609) presents the four elements: earth, fire, air and water.References:
Castle of Lorca (Castillo de Lorca) is a fortress of medieval origin constructed between the 9th and 15th centuries. It consists of a series of defensive structures that, during the Middle Ages, made the town and the fortress an impregnable point in the southeast part of the Iberian Peninsula. Lorca Castle was a key strategic point of contention between Christians and Muslims during the Reconquista.
Archaeological excavations have revealed that the site of the castle has been inhabited since Neolithic times.
It has not been determined exactly when a castle or fortress was first built on the hill. The first written documentation referring to a castle at Lorca is of Muslim origin, which in the 9th century, indicates that the city of Lurqa was an important town in the area ruled by Theudimer (Tudmir). During Muslim rule, Lorca Castle was an impregnable fortress and its interior was divided into two sections by the Espaldón Wall. In the western part, there was an area used to protect livestock and grain in times of danger. The eastern part had a neighbourhood called the barrio de Alcalá.
Lorca was conquered by the Castilian Infante Don Alfonso, the future Alfonso X, in 1244, and the fortress became a key defensive point against the Kingdom of Granada. For 250 years, Lorca Castle was a watchpoint on the border between the Christian kingdom of Murcia and the Muslim state of Granada.
Alfonso X ordered the construction of the towers known as the Alfonsina and Espolón Towers, and strengthened and fixed the walls. Hardly a trace of the Muslim fortress remained due to this reconstruction. Muslim traces remain in the foundation stones and the wall known as the muro del Espaldón.
The Jewish Quarter was found within the alcazaba, the Moorish fortification, separated from the rest of the city by its walls. The physical separation had the purpose of protecting the Jewish people in the town from harm, but also had the result of keeping Christians and Jews separate, with the Christians inhabiting the lower part of town.
The remains of the Jewish Quarter extended over an area of 5,700 square m, and 12 homes and a synagogue have been found; the synagogue dates from the 14th century and is the only one found in the Murcia. The streets of the town had an irregular layout, adapted to the landscape, and is divided into four terraces. The synagogue was in the central location, and around it were the homes. The homes were of rectangular shape, with various compartmentalized rooms. The living quarters were elevated and a common feature was benches attached to the walls, kitchens, stand for earthenware jars, or cupboards.
With the disappearance of the frontier after the conquest of Granada in 1492, Lorca Castle no longer became as important as before. With the expulsion of the Jews by order of Ferdinand and Isabella, Lorca Castle was also depopulated as a result. The castle was abandoned completely, and was almost a complete ruin by the 18th century. In the 19th century, the castle was refurbished due to the War of Spanish Independence. The walls and structures were repaired or modified and its medieval look changed. A battery of cannons was installed, for example, during this time. In 1931 Lorca Castle was declared a National Historic Monument.
Currently, a parador (luxury hotel) has been built within the castle. As a result, archaeological discoveries have been found, including the Jewish Quarter.